An Exploratory Study Regarding the Effects of Auditor Switch, Auditee’s Industry, and Auditee’s Location on Audit Fees in Australia
Authors: Ashkan Mirzay Fashami
This study examines the effects of auditor switch, auditee’s industry, and auditee’s location on audit fees in Australia. It uses fee data of Australian Securities Exchange 500 companies, considering all industry classifications throughout the country from 2006 until 2016. Main findings show that auditor switch does not affect audit fees. However, auditee’s industry affects audit fees. This effect occurs in information technology, financials, energy, and materials sectors among the top 500 companies. Financials, energy, and materials sectors face a fee rise, whereas information technology has a fee cut. The extent of fee changes is different among various industries, wherein the financial sector has the highest increase. Further, auditee’s location affects audit fees. Top 500 companies in Hobart, Perth, and Brisbane face a fee reduction, wherein the highest cut is in Hobart. Further analysis suggests that the Australian audit market is being increasingly concentrated in the hands of the Big Four audit firms.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3299629Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 800
 Krishnan J. Auditor switching and conservatism. The Accounting Review. 1994;69(1):200-15.1.
 Aghaei Chadegani A, Muhammaddun Mohamed Z, Jari A. The determinant factors of auditor switch among companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics 2011;ISSN 1450-2887(80):158-68.
 Cahan SF, Godfrey JM, Hamilton J, Jeter DC. Auditor specialization, auditor dominance, and audit fees: The role of investment opportunities. The Accounting Review. 2008;83(6):1393-423.
 Francis JR, Mehta MN, Zhao W. Audit office reputation shocks from gains and losses of major industry clients. Contemporary Accounting Research. 2017;34(4):1922-74.
 DeFond ML. The association between changes in client firm agency costs and auditor switching. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1992;11(1):16-31.
 Lennox CS. Do companies successfully engage in opinion-shopping? Evidence from the UK. Journal of Accounting and Economics. 2000;29(3):321-37.
 Simon DT, Francis JR. The effects of auditor change on audit fees: Tests of price cutting and price recovery. The Accounting Review. 1988;63(2):255-69.
 Blouin JL, Grein BM, Rountree BR. An analysis of forced auditor change: The case of former Arthur Andersen clients. The Accounting Review. 2007;82(3):621-50.
 Balsam S, Krishnan J, Yang JS. Auditor industry specialization and earnings quality. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2003;22(2):71-97.
 Knechel WR, Naiker V, Pacheco G. Does auditor industry specialization matter? Evidence from market reaction to auditor switches. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2007;26(1):19-45.
 Francis JR. The effect of audit firm size on audit prices: A study of the Australian market. Journal of Accounting and Economics. 1984;6(2):133-51.
 Butterworth S, Houghton KA. Auditor switching: The pricing of audit services. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 1995;22(3):323-44.
 Craswell AT, Francis JR. Pricing initial audit engagements: A test of competing theories. The Accounting Review. 1999;74(2):201-16.
 Craswell AT, Francis JR, Taylor SL. Auditor brand name reputations and industry specialisations. Journal of accounting and economics. 1995;20(3):297-322.
 Fargher N, Jiang L. Interpreting recent changes in audit modification rates with the change in client risk and audit environment: Evidence from Australia. Working Paper2006.
 Ryken K, Radich R, Fargher NL. Audit partner rotation: Evidence of changes in audit partner tenure as the result of mandatory regulation in Australia. Current Issues in Auditing. 2007;1(1):A28-A35.
 Hossain S. Effect of regulatory changes on auditor independence and audit quality. International Journal of Auditing. 2013;17(3):246-64.
 Commonwealth of Australia. Corporate law economic reform program–Audit reform and corporate disclosure. CLERP 9. Appointment and Removal of Auditors. Canberra, ACT: Parliament of Australia; 2004.
 Claessens S, Dell’Ariccia G, Igan D, Laeven L. Cross-country experiences and policy implications from the global financial crisis. Economic Policy. 2010;25(62):267-93.
 Erkens DH, Hung M, Matos P. Corporate governance in the 2007–2008 financial crisis: Evidence from financial institutions worldwide. Journal of Corporate Finance. 2012;18(2):389-411.
 Xu Y, Carson E, Fargher N, Jiang L. Responses by Australian auditors to the global financial crisis. Accounting & Finance. 2013;53(1):301-38.
 Woods N. Global governance after the financial crisis: A new multilateralism or the last gasp of the great powers? Global Policy. 2010;1(1):51-63.
 Goldin I, Vogel T. Global governance and systemic risk in the 21st century: Lessons from the financial crisis. Global Policy. 2010;1(1):4-15.
 Henry D. Agency costs, ownership structure and corporate governance compliance: A private contracting perspective. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal. 2010;18(1):24-46.
 Chen L, Kilgore A, Radich R. Audit committees: Voluntary formation by ASX non-top 500. Managerial Auditing Journal. 2009;24(5):475-93.
 Simunic DA. The pricing of audit services: Theory and evidence. Journal of Accounting Research. 1980;18(1):161-90.
 Bedard JC, Johnstone KM. Earnings manipulation risk, corporate governance risk, and auditors' planning and pricing decisions. The Accounting Review. 2004;79(2):277-304.
 Christensen BE, Omer T, Sharp N, Shelley M. Pork bellies and public company audits: Have audits once again become just another commodity? Working Paper2014.
 Doogar R, Rowe SP, Sivadasan P. Asleep at the wheel (again)? Bank audits during the lead‐up to the financial crisis. Contemporary Accounting Research. 2015;32(1):358-91.
 Suryanto T. Determinants of audit fee based on client attribute, auditor attribute, and engagement attribute to control risks and prevent fraud: A study on public accounting firms in Sumatra-Indonesia. International Journal in Economics and Business Administration. 2014;2(3):27-39.
 Mayhew BW, Wilkins MS. Audit firm industry specialization as a differentiation strategy: Evidence from fees charged to firms going public. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2003;22(2):33-52.
 Ferguson A, Francis JR, Stokes DJ. The effects of firm-wide and office-level industry expertise on audit pricing. The Accounting Review. 2003;78(2):429-48.
 Pearson T, Trompeter G. Competition in the market for audit services: The effect of supplier concentration on audit fees. Contemporary Accounting Research. 1994;11(1):115-35.
 Hay DC. Further Evidence from Meta‐Analysis of Audit Fee Research. International Journal of Auditing. 2013;17(2):162-76.
 Ireland JC, Lennox CS. The large audit firm fee premium: A case of selectivity bias? Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance. 2002;17(1):73-91.
 DeFond ML, Zhang J. A review of archival auditing research. Journal of Accounting and Economics. 2014;58(2):275-326.
 Chow CW, Rice SJ. Qualified audit opinions and auditor switching. The Accounting Review. 1982;57(2):326-35.
 Geiger MA, Raghunandan K, Rama D. Costs associated with going concern modified audit opinions: An analysis of auditor changes, subsequent opinions, and client failures. Advances in Accounting. 1998;16(1):117-39.
 Vanstraelen A. Going concern opinions, auditor switching, and the self-fulfilling prophecy effect examined in the regulatory context of Belgium. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance. 2003;18(2):231-54.
 Dopuch N, Simunic D, editors. Competition in auditing: An assessment. Fourth Symposium on auditing research; 1982; Urbana, IL. Urbana, U.S.A: University of Illinois.
 Nazatul S, Smith M, Ismail Z. Factors influencing auditor change: Evidence from Malaysia. Asian Review of Accounting. 2012;20(3):222-40.
 Hudaib M, Cooke T. The impact of managing director changes and financial distress on audit qualification and auditor switching. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 2005;32(9‐10):1703-39.
 Schwartz KB, Menon K. Auditor switches by failing firms. The Accounting Review. 1985;60(2):248-61.
 Beattie V, Fearnley S. The importance of audit firm characteristics and the drivers of auditor change in UK listed companies. Accounting and Business Research. 1995;25(100):227-39.
 Lindahl F. How much do we know about auditor changes? The effect of observed and unobserved heterogeneity. Working Paper1994.
 Healy PM, Lys T. Auditor changes following Big Eight mergers with non-Big Eight audit firms. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy. 1986;5(4):251-65.
 Eichenseher JW. The effects of foreign operations on domestic auditor selection. Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance. 1985;8(3):195-209.
 Stokes DJ, editor The market for audit services: Evidence from audit firm mergers. AAA conference; 1992.
 49. Haskins ME, Williams DD. A contingent model of intra-Big 8 auditor changes. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1990;9(3):55-74.
 Carpente CG, Strawser RH. Displacement of auditors when clients go public. Journal of Accountancy. 1971;131(6):55-8.
 Holthausen RW, Verrecchia RE. The effect of informedness and consensus on price and volume behaviour. The Accounting Review. 1990;65(1):191-208.
 Ahmed HJA, Ali M, Mohd R, Mohamad S, Md Nassir A, Syed Mohamed MA. Auditor switch decision of Malaysian listed firms: Tests of determinants and wealth effect. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 2000;8(2):77-90.
 Bedingfield J, Loeb S. Auditor changes-examination. Journal of Accountancy. 1974;137(3):66-9.
 Ettredge ML, Greenberg R. Determinants of fee cutting on initial audit engagements. Journal of Accounting Research. 1990;28(1):198-210.
 Dhaliwal DS, Schatzberg JW, Trombley MA. An analysis of the economic factors related to auditor-client disagreements preceding auditor changes. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1993;12(2):22-38.
 Williams DD. The potential determinants of auditor change. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 1988;15(2):243-61.
 DeAngelo LE. Auditor independence, ‘low balling’, and disclosure regulation. Journal of Accounting and Economics. 1981;3(2):113-27.
 Dye RA. Informationally motivated auditor replacement. Journal of Accounting and Economics. 1991;14(4):347-74.
 Schatzberg JW. A new examination of auditor "Low ball" pricing: Theoretical model and experimental evidence. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1994;13(Supplement):33-49.
 Jeffrey W, Galen R. A multiperiod model and experimental evidence of independence and “lowballing”. Contemporary Accounting Research. 1994;11(1):137-74.
 Elitzur RR, Falk H. Auctions for audit services and low-balling. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1996;15(Supplement):41-56.
 Coate CJ, Loeb MP. Audit pricing, auditor changes, and the winner's curse. The British Accounting Review. 1997;29(4):315-34.
 Kanodia C, Mukherji A. Audit pricing, lowballing and auditor turnover: A dynamic analysis. The Accounting Review. 1994;69(4):593-615.
 Sankaraguruswamy S, Whisenant J. Pricing initial audit engagements: Empirical evidence following public disclosure of audit fees. Working Paper2009.
 Kallunki JP, Sahlström P, Zerni M. Propensity to switch auditors and strictness of legal liability environment: The role of audit mispricing. International Journal of Auditing. 2007;11(3):165-85.
 Baber WR, Brooks EH, Ricks WE. An empirical investigation of the market for audit services in the public sector. Journal of Accounting Research. 1987;25(2):293-305.
 Lai KW, Yim A. Non-audit services and Big 5 auditor independence: Evidence from audit pricing and audit opinion of initial engagement. Working Paper2002.
 Pong C, Whittington G. The determinants of audit fees: Some empirical models. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 1994;21(8):1071-95.
 Gregory A, Collier P. Audit fees and auditor change: An investigation of the persistence of fee reduction by type of change. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 1996;23(1):13-28.
 Deis DR, Giroux GA. The effect of auditor changes on audit fees, audit hours, and audit quality. Journal of Accounting and Public policy. 1996;15(1):55-76.
 Turpen RA. Differential pricing on auditors' initial engagements: Further evidence. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1990;9(2):60-76.
 O'Keefe TB, Simunic DA, Stein MT. The production of audit services: Evidence from a major public accounting firm. Journal of Accounting Research. 1994;32(2):241-61.
 Rubin MA. Municipal audit fee determinants. The Accounting Review. 1988;63(2):219-36.
 Palmrose Z-V. The effect of non-audit services on the pricing of audit services: Further evidence. Journal of Accounting Research. 1986;24(2):405-11.
 Barefield RM, Gaver JJ, Keefe TB. Additional evidence on the economics of attest: Extending results from the audit market to the market for compilations and reviews. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1993;12(1):76-89.
 Stein MT, Simunic DA, Keefe TB. Industry differences in the production of audit services. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1994;13:128 - 42.
 Carcello JV, Hermanson RH, McGrath NT. Audit quality attributes: The perceptions of audit partners, preparers, and financial statement users. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1992;11(1):1-15.
 Behn BK, Carcello JV, Hermanson DR, Hermanson RH. The determinants of audit client satisfaction among clients of Big 6 firms. Accounting Horizons. 1997;11(1):7-24.
 Hua S, Liu Z, Sun XC, Yu J. Auditor bargaining power and audit fee lowballing. Advances in Business Research. 2016;7(1):81-9.
 Chen YM, Moroney R, Houghton KA. Audit committee composition and the use of an industry specialist audit firm. Accounting & Finance. 2005;45(2):217-39.
 Krishnan GV. Does Big 6 auditor industry expertise constrain earnings management? Accounting Horizons. 2003;17(Supplement):1-16.
 Nicolaescu E. Developments in corporate governance and regulatory interest in protecting audit quality. Economics, Management and Financial Markets. 2013;8(2):198-203.
 Hay DC, Davis D. The voluntary choice of an auditor of any level of quality. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2004;23(2):37-53.
 Cohen S, Leventis S. Effects of municipal, auditing and political factors on audit delay. Accounting Forum. 2013;37(1):40-53.
 Sirois L-P, Marmousez S, Simunic D, editors. Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit production costs: Office level audit technology and the impact on audit fees. Comptabilités et innovation; 2012 25 April 2012; Grenoble, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes: HEC Montréal.
 Handley SM, Benton Jr W. The influence of task-and location-specific complexity on the control and coordination costs in global outsourcing relationships. Journal of Operations Management. 2013;31(3):109-28.
 Palmrose Z-V. Audit fees and auditor size: Further evidence. Journal of Accounting Research. 1986;24(1):97-110.
 Chan P, Ezzamel M, Gwilliam D. Determinants of audit fees for quoted UK companies. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 1993;20(6):765-86.
 Grinter RE, Herbsleb JD, Perry DE, editors. The geography of coordination: Dealing with distance in R&D work. Proceedings of the international ACM SIGGROUP conference on Supporting group work; 1999; Phoenix, Arizona: ACM.
 O'Leary MB, Cummings JN. The spatial, temporal, and configurational characteristics of geographic dispersion in teams. MIS Quarterly. 2007;31(3):433-52.
 Che-Ahmad A, Houghton KA. Audit fee premiums of Big Eight firms: Evidence from the market for medium-size UK auditees. Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation. 1996;5(1):53-72.
 Langendijk H. The market for audit services in the Netherlands. European Accounting Review. 1998;6(2):253-64.
 Firth M. The provision of non‐audit services and the pricing of audit fees. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 1997;24(3):511-25.
 Brinn T, Peel MJ, Roberts R. Audit fee determinants of independent & subsidiary unquoted companies in the UK-an exploratory study. The British Accounting Review. 1994;26(2):101-21.
 Hay DC, Knechel WR, Wong N. Audit fees: A Meta‐analysis of the effect of supply and demand attributes. Contemporary Accounting Research. 2006;23(1):141-91.
 Maher MW, Tiessen P, Colson R, Broman AJ. Competition and audit fees. The Accounting Review. 1992;67(1):199-211.
 Iyer VM, Iyer GS. Effect of Big 8 mergers on audit fees: Evidence from the United Kingdom. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1996;15(2):123-32.
 Vafeas N, Waegelein JF. The association between audit committees, compensation incentives, and corporate audit fees. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting. 2007;28(3):241-55.
 Lee HY, Mande V. The Relationship of audit committee characteristics with endogenously determined audit and non-audit fees. Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics. 2005;44(3/4):93-112.
 Abbott LJ, Parker S, Peters GF, Raghunandan K. The association between audit committee characteristics and audit fees. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2003;22(2):17-32.
 Choi JH, Kim C, Kim J-B, Zang Y. Audit office size, audit quality, and audit pricing. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2010;29(1):73-97.
 Simon DT. The audit services market: Additional empirical evidence. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 1985;5(1):71-8.
 Simunic DA. Auditing, consulting, and auditor independence. Journal of Accounting Research. 1984;22(2):679-702.
 Choi JH, Kim JB, Liu X, Simunic DA. Audit pricing, legal liability regimes, and Big 4 premiums: Theory and cross‐country evidence. Contemporary Accounting Research. 2008;25(1):55-99.
 Gul FA, Chen CJ, Tsui JS. Discretionary accounting accruals, managers' incentives, and audit fees. Contemporary Accounting Research. 2003;20(3):441-64.
 Singh H, Woodliff D, Sultana N, Newby R. Additional evidence on the relationship between an internal audit function and external audit fees in Australia. International Journal of Auditing. 2014;18(1):27-39.
 Francis JR, Simon DT. A test of audit pricing in the small-client segment of the U.S. audit market. The Accounting Review. 1987;62(1):145-57.
 Garsombke HP, Armitage JL. Competitive bidding, fees and auditor changes: Additional evidence. Journal of Applied Business Research. 1993;9(3):93-9.
 Huang H-W, Raghunandan K, Rama D. Audit fees for initial audit engagements before and after SOX. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2009;28(1):171-90.
 Carcello JV, Hermanson DR, Neal TL, Riley Jr RR. Board characteristics and audit fees. Contemporary Accounting Research 2002;19(3):365-84.
 Eshleman JD, Guo P. Do Big 4 auditors provide higher audit quality after controlling for the endogenous choice of auditor? Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2014;33(4):197-219.
 Francis JR, Yu MD. Big 4 office size and audit quality. The Accounting Review. 2009;84(5):1521-52.
 Krishnan GV, Zhang Y. Is there a relation between audit fee cuts during the global financial crisis and banks’ financial reporting quality? Journal of Accounting and Public Policy. 2014;33(3):279-300.
 Francis JR, Stokes DJ. Audit prices, product differentiation, and scale economies: Further evidence from the Australian market. Journal of Accounting Research. 1986;24(2):383-93.
 Huang H-W, Raghunandan K, Huang T-C, Chiou J-R. Fee discounting and audit quality following audit firm and audit partner changes: Chinese evidence. The Accounting Review. 2015;90(4):1517-46.
 Lesage C, Ratzinger-Sakel NV, Kettunen J. Consequences of the abandonment of mandatory joint audit: An empirical study of audit costs and audit quality effects. European Accounting Review. 2017;26(2):311-39.
 Ettredge ML, Fuerherm EE, Li C. Fee pressure and audit quality. Accounting, Organizations and Society. 2014;39(4):247-63.
 Hardies K, Breesch D, Branson J. The female audit fee premium. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. 2015;34(4):171-95.
 Chu L, Simunic DA, Ye M, Zhang P. Transaction costs and competition among audit firms in local markets. Journal of Accounting and Economics. 2018;65(1):129-47.
 Carey PJ, Monroe GS, Shailer G. Review of post‐CLERP 9 Australian auditor independence research. Australian Accounting Review. 2014;24(4):370-80.
 Farshadfar S, Monem R. Discretionary accruals and the predictive ability of earnings in the forecast of future cash flows: Evidence from Australia. Corporate Ownership and Control. 2011;9(1):597-608.
 Quadackers L, Groot T, Wright A. Auditors’ professional skepticism: Neutrality versus presumptive doubt. Contemporary Accounting Research. 2014;31(3):639-57.
 Adeyemi SB, Okpala O, Dabor EL. Factors affecting audit quality in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2012;3(20):198-209.
 Graham MH. Confronting multicollinearity in ecological multiple regression. Ecology. 2003;84(11):2809-15.
 Adeyemi SB, Fagbemi TO. Audit quality, corporate governance and firm characteristics in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management. 2010;5(5):169 - 79.
 Rahmina LY, Agoes S. Influence of auditor independence, audit tenure, and audit fee on audit quality of members of capital market accountant forum in Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;164:324-31.
 Alin A. Multicollinearity. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics. 2010;2(3):370-4.
 Nuryanto M, Afiah NN. The impact of apparatus competence, information technology utilization and internal control on financial statement quality (study on local government of Jakarta Province-Indonesia). World Review of Business Research. 2013;3(4):157-71.
 Smith GW, Shevlin M. Patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviour in Great Britain: A latent class analysis of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT). Alcohol & Alcoholism. 2008;43(5):590-4.
 Li W. New stopping criteria for segmenting DNA sequences. Physical Review Letters. 2001;86(25):5815-8.
 Raftery AE. Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociological Methodology. 1995;25(4):111-63.
 Griffin PA, Lont DH. Audit fees around dismissals and resignations: Additional evidence. Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Economics. 2011;7(2):65-81.
 The Economist. Worldwide Cost of Living London: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2018 (Available from: https://www.eiu.com/topic/worldwide-cost-of-living.
 Palin M. Cost of living comparisons Australia: Cheapest and most expensive places to live Sydney: News Corp Australia; 2018 (1 April 2018). Available from: https://www.news.com.au/finance/money/costs/cost-of-living-comparisons-australia-cheapest-and-most-expensive-places-to-live/news-story/4f674044c26fefbfabe573ca517add4d.
 Nodeh FM, Anuar MA, Ramakrishnan S, Raftnia AA. The effect of board structure on banks financial performance by moderating firm size. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2016;7(1):258-63.
 Ahsan S, Ullah N. Impact of cash flow volatility on cash-cash flow sensitivity of Pakistani firms. Journal of Business and Management. 2013;8(1):85-97.
 Farbmacher H, Kögel H. Testing under a special form of heteroscedasticity. Applied Economics Letters. 2017;24(4):264-8.
 Pestana Barros C, Gomes Santos J. Earnings and schooling of cooperative managers. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics. 2003;74(3):349-64.
 Breusch TS, Pagan AR. A simple test for heteroscedasticity and random coefficient variation. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society. 1979;47(5):1287-94.
 Fomby TB, Hill RC, Johnson SR. Advanced Econometric Methods. illustrated ed. New York City: Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
 Plümper T, Troeger VE. Efficient estimation of time-invariant and rarely changing variables in finite sample panel analyses with unit fixed effects. Political Analysis. 2007;15(2):124-39.
 Schurer S, Yong J. Personality, well-being and the marginal utility of income: What can we learn from random coefficient models? Working Paper2012.
 Bell A, Jones K. Explaining fixed effects: Random effects modeling of time-series cross-sectional and panel data. Political Science Research and Methods. 2015;3(1):133-53.
 Beck N, Katz JN. Throwing out the baby with the bath water: A comment on Green, Kim, and Yoon. International Organization. 2001;55(2):487-95.
 Beck N. Time-series–cross-section data: What have we learned in the past few years? Annual Review of Political Science. 2001;4(1):271-93.
 Beck N, Katz JN. Random coefficient models for time-series—cross-section data: Monte Carlo experiments. Political Analysis. 2007;15(2):182-95.
 Duncan C, Jones K, Moon G. Context, composition and heterogeneity: Using multilevel models in health research. Social Science & Medicine. 1998;46(1):97-117.