Recent Advances in the Valorization of Goat Milk: Nutritional Properties and Production Sustainability
Goat dairy products are gaining popularity worldwide. In developing countries, but also in many marginal regions of the Mediterranean area, goats represent a great part of the economy and ensure food security. In fact, these small ruminants are able to convert efficiently poor weedy plants and small trees into traditional products of high nutritional quality, showing great resilience to different climatic and environmental conditions. In developed countries, goat milk is appreciated for the presence of health-promoting compounds, bioactive compounds such as conjugated linoleic acids, oligosaccharides, sphingolipids and polyammines. This paper focuses on the recent advances in literature on the nutritional properties of goat milk and on innovative techniques to improve its quality as to become a promising functional food. The environmental sustainability of different methodologies of production has also been examined. Goat milk is valued today as a food of high nutritional value and functional properties as well as small environmental footprint. It is widely consumed in many countries due to high nutritional value, lower allergenic potential, and better digestibility when compared to bovine milk, that makes this product suitable for infants, elderly or sensitive patients. The main differences in chemical composition between a cow and goat milk rely on fat globules that in goat milk are smaller and in fatty acids that present a smaller chain length, while protein, fat, and lactose concentration are comparable. Milk nutritional properties have demonstrated to be strongly influenced by animal diet, genotype, and welfare, but also by season and production systems. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the dairy industry in goat milk for its relatively high concentration of prebiotics and a good amount of probiotics, which have recently gained importance for their therapeutic potential. Therefore, goat milk is studied as a promising matrix to develop innovative functional foods. In addition to the economic and nutritional value, goat milk is considered a sustainable product for its small environmental footprint, as they require relatively little water and land, and less medical treatments, compared to cow, these characteristics make its production naturally vocated to organic farming. Organic goat milk production has becoming more and more interesting both for farmers and consumers as it can answer to several concerns like environment protection, animal welfare and economical sustainment of rural populations living in marginal lands. These evidences make goat milk an ancient food with novel properties and advantages to be valorized and exploited.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3299563Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 796
 FAOSTAT, 2018. http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx
 G. Pulina, M.J. Milán, M.P. Laví, A.T heodoridis, E. Morin, J. Capote, D.L. Thomas, A.H.D. Francesconi and G. Caja. “Invited review: Current production trends, farm structures, and economics of the dairy sheep and goat sectors “, J. of Dairy Sci., vol. 101, no.8,pp. 6715-6729, Aug. 2018.
 S. Verruck, A. Dantas and E. Schwinden Prudencio “Functionality of the components from goat’s milk, recent advances for functional dairy products development and its implications on human health”, J. of Func. Foods, vol. 52, pp. 243-257, 2019
 M.W. Taylor and A.K.H. Mac Gibbon “Triacylglycerols” in J.W. Fuquay (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (2nd), Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2011), pp. 665-669
 P.C. Elwood, J.E. Pickering, D.I. Givens and J.E. Gallacher “The consumption of milk and dairy foods and the incidence of vascular disease and diabetes: an overview of the evidence”. Lipids, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 925-39, Apr. 2010.
 G. Contarini and M. Povolo “Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies” Int. J. of mol. Sci., vol. 14, pp. 2808-2831, 2013.
 D. Giorgio, A. Di Trana and S. Claps. “Oligosaccharides, polyamines and sphingolipids in ruminant milk” Small Rum. Res., vol. 160., Jan .2018.
 Y. Yao, G. Zhao, J. Xiang, X. Zou, Q. Jin and X. Wang. “Lipid composition and structural characteristics of bovine, caprine and human milk fat globules” Int. Dairy J., vol. 56, pp. 64-73, May 2016
 R. L Oliveira, M. M. Faria, R. Silva, L. R. Bezerra, G. G. P. de Carvalho, A. Pinheiro, J. Simionato, and A. G. Leão.”Fatty acid profile of milk and cheese from dairy cows supplemented a diet with palm kernel cake” Molecules, vol 20, pp. 15434–15448., 2015.
 V. Cunsolo, E. Fasoli, R. Saletti, V. Muccilli, S. Gallina, P. G. Righetti andS. Foti “Zeus, Aesculapius, Amalthea and the proteome of goat milk” J. of Proteomics, vol. 128 , pp. 69–82, 2015.
 K. Raynal-Ljutovac, K, G. Lagriffoul, P. Paccard, I. Guillet, and Y. Chilliard, “Composition of goat and sheep milk products: An update”. Small Ruminant Res., vol. 79, pp. 57-72, 2008.
 M.J.M. Alférez, i. López-Aliaga, T. Nestares, J. Díaz-Castro, M. Barrionuevo, P. B. Ros and M. Campos, “Dietary goat milk improves iron bioavailability in rats with induced ferropenic anaemia in comparison with cow milk”. Int. Dairy J., vol., 16, pp. 813-821, 2006.
 N. Silanikove, G. Leitner, U.Merin and C.G.Prosserd “Recent advances in exploiting goat's milk: Quality, safety and production aspects” Small Ruminant Res., vol. 89, no. 2–3, pp. 110-124, April 2010.
 E. Larqué., M. Sabater-Molina and S. Zamora “Biological significance of dietary polyamines” Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2007.
 C.S. Ranadheera, N. Naumovski and S. Ajlouni “Non-bovine milk products as emerging probiotic carriers: recent developments and innovations” Cur. Opinion in Food Sci., vol., pp. 109-114, Aug. 2018
 R. Karimi, M. Azizi, M. Ghasemlou and M. Vaziri “Application of inulin in cheese as prebiotic, fat replacer and texturizer: A review” Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 119C, pp. 85-100, 2015.
 D. L. Oliveira, R. A. Wilbey, A. S. Grandison, L. C. Duarte and L:B. Roseiro, “Separation of oligosaccharides from caprine milk whey, prior to prebiotic evaluation” Int. Dairy J., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 102–106, 2012.
 M. K. S. Yazdi, A. Davoodabadi, H. R. K. Zarin, M. T. Ebrahimi, M. M. S. Dallal “Characterisation and probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Iranian traditional yogurts” Italian J. of Animal Sci., vol. 16, no.2, pp. 185–188, 2017.
 W. Q. Zhang, W. P. Ge, J. Yang, X.C. Xue, S.Z. Wu, Y. Chen and L.H. Qin “ Comparative of in vitro antioxidant and cholesterol-lowering activities of fermented goat & cow milk” Resources Environ. and Eng., pp. 417–424, 2015.
 J. Viana de Souza and F. Silva Dias “Protective, technological, and functional properties of select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairy products” Curr. Opinion in Food Sci., vol 13, pp. 1–9, 2017.
 F.I. Ustok, C. Tari, S. Harsa “Biochemical and thermal properties of b-galactosidase enzymes produced by artisanal yogurt cultures” Food Chem, VOL. 119, PP.1114-1120, 2010.
 A.G.T. Flesch, A.K. Poziomyck, and D.D.C. Damin, “The therapeutic use of synbiotics.” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 206–209, 2014.
 P.Morand-Fehr, V. Fedele, M. Decandia and Y. Le Frileux “Influence of farming and feeding systems on composition and quality of goat and sheep milk”Small Ruminant Res., vol. 68, no. 1–2, pp. 20-34, March 2007
 M. Mele, A. Buccioni, A. Serra, M. Antongiovanni and P. Secchiari, “Lipids of goat's milk: Origin, composition and main sources of variation” Dairy Goats, Feeding and Nutrition. 47-70. 2011.
 K. Boutoial, S. Rovira Garbayo, V. Garcia, E. Ferrandini and M. López “Influence of feeding goats with thyme and rosemary extracts on the physicochemical and sensory quality of cheese and pasteurized milk. In: Goats: Habitat, Breeding and Management, Chapter: 6, Publisher: Nova Science Publishers, Editors: Diego E. Garrote and Gustavo J. Arede, pp.125-136, 2013.
 H. Steinfeld and P. Gerber “Livestock production and the global environment: consume less or produce better?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 107, pp. 18237–18238, 2010.
 C. Peacock and D.M. Sherman “Sustainable goat production—Some global perspectives” Small Ruminant Res.arch, vol. 89, pp. 70-80, 2010.
 R. Celaya, B.M. Jáuregui, R. Rosa García, R. Benavides, U. García and K. Osoro “Changes in heathland vegetation under goat grazing: effects of breed and stocking rate” Appl. Veg. Sci., vol. 13, pp. 125-134, 2010.
 R. Celaya, A. Martínez and K. Osoro “Vegetation dynamics in Cantabrian heathlands associated with improved pasture areas under single or mixed grazing by sheep and goats” Small Rumin. Res., vol. 72, pp. 165-177, 2007.
 R. Rosa, R. García, U. Celaya, .K. Osoro “Goat grazing, its interactions with other herbivores and biodiversity conservation issues” Small Rumin. Res., vol. 107, pp., 49-64, Oct. 2012.
 R. Gutiérrez Peña, Y. Mena, I. Batalla and J.M. Mancilla-Leytón, “Carbon footprint of dairy goat production systems: A comparison of three contrasting grazing levels in the Sierra de Grazalema Natural Park (Southern Spain)” J. Environ. Manag., vol. 232, pp. 993-998, 2019.
 R. Benavides, R. Celaya, L. Ferreira, B. Jáuregui, U. García, K. Osoro, “Grazing behaviour of domestic ruminants according to flock type and subsequent vegetation changes on partially improved heathlands”. Spanish J. of Agric. Res., vol. 7, pp. 417-430, 2009.
 K. Launchbaugh (Ed.),”Targeted Grazing: A Natural Approach to Vegetation Management and Landscape Enhancement”, Cottrell Printing, Centennial, CO, USA, 2006.
 E. Baraza, A. Valiente-Banuet and O.D. Delgado “Dietary supplementation in domestic goats may reduce grazing pressure on vegetation in semi-arid thornscrub” J. Arid Environ., vol. 74, pp. 1061-1065, 2010.
 D. Lu, X. Gangyi and J.R. Kawas “Organic goat production, processing and marketing: opportunities, challenges and outlook” vSmall Rumin. Res., vol. 89, pp. 102-109, 2010.