Effect of Fatty Acids in Feed on Levels of Antibody Titers and CD4 and CD8 T-Lymphocyte against Newcastle Disease Virus of Vaccinated Broiler Chicken
400 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross-308) randomly divided to 2 main groups, 1st main group (GA) was feeding basal diet with medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at rate of 0.15% and divided to four subgroups, 3 subgroups vaccinated with different routes with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and non-vaccinated group. The 2nd main group (GB) feeding basal diet without MCFA and divided the same as 1st main group. The parameters used in this study included: ND antibody titers at 1, 10, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age and values of CD4 and CD8 at 1, 20, 30 and 42 days of age. This experiment detected increase in ND antibodies titers in (G1, G2, G3) groups were fed on basal diet MCFA comparing to groups were fed without adding MCFA (G5, G6, G7) and control groups (G4, G8). The results of cellular immune response (CD4 and CD8) T-cells in broiler chicks indicated that there was obviously significant relationship between dietary Fatty Acid (FA) versus the diet without FA on the level of CD4 parameter, for the entire experimental period. The effect of different ages was statistically significant in creating different values of CD4 level, whereas the CD4 level decreases markedly with age. However, analyzing the data of different vaccination methods, oculonasal method of vaccination led to the highest value of CD4 compared with the oral, S/C and control groups. There were statistical differences in CD8 values due to supplementation of FA versus the basal diet and due to the effect of different age periods. As for the age effect, the CD8 value at 20 days of age was significantly higher than at 42 and 30 days.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3299319Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 423
 Stewart, C. R.; Keyburny, A. L.; Deffrasnes, C. and Tompkins, S. M. (2013). Potential directions for chicken immunology research. Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 41: 463-468.
 Ganar, K.; Das, M.; Sinha, S. and Kumar, S. (2014). Newcastle disease virus: Current status and our understanding. Virus Research. 184: 71-81.
 Al-Shahery, M. N.; Al-Zubeady, A. Z. and Al-Baroodi, S. Y. (2008). Evaluation of cell-mediated immune response in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sci. 22: 21-24.
 Schaechter, M. and Lederberg, J. (2004). The Desk Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Elsevier Ltd. USA.
 Dalgaard, T. S.; Norup, L. R..; Pedersen, A. R.; Handberg, K. J.; Jørgensen, P. H. and Juul-Madsen, H. R. (2010). Flow cytometric assessment of chicken T cell-mediated immune responses after Newcastle disease virus vaccination and challenge. Vaccine. 28: 4506-4514.
 Korver, D. (2012). Implications of changing immune function through nutrition in poultry. Animal Feed Sci and Technology. 173: 54-64.
 Ziaran, H. R.; Rahmani, H. R. and Palic, D. (2005). Effect of Dietary Oil Extract of Propolis on Immune Response and Broiler Performance Pakistan J. of Biological Sci. 8: 1485-1490.
 Leeson S. and Summers J. D. (2008). Commercial Poultry Nutrition. 3rd ed. Nottingham University Press. UK.
 Crespo, N. and Esteve-Garcia, E. (2001). Dietary Fatty Acid Profile Modifies Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Chickens. Poultry Sci. 80: 71-78.
 Brenes A. and Roura, E., 2010. Essential oils in poultry nutrition:Main effects and modes of action. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 158(1-2), pp.1-14.
 Ashan, S. K. (2011). Effect of Herbal oil on performance, carcass quality, blood parameters and Immune System in female broiler chicken. Annals of Biological Research. 2: 589-592.
 Tollba, A. A. M.; Shahbaan, S. A. M. and Abdel-Mageed, M. A. A. (2010). Effect of using Aromatic herbal extract and blended with Organic acids on productive and physiological performance of poultry 2- the growth during cold winter stress. Egypt Poultry Sci. 30: 229-248.
 SAS (2005). Statistical analysis system. users guide for personal computer. Releasze 8.2 SAS Intsituted Inc. Cary, NC, USA.
 Duncan, D. B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biom. 11: 1-42.
 Awad, F.; Forrester, A.; Baylis, M.; Lemiere., S.; Jones, R.; Ganapathy K.; (2010). Immune responses and interactions following simultaneous application of live Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumovirus vaccines in specific-pathogen-free chicks. Research in Veterinary Sci. 98: 127-133.
 Rue, C. A.; Susta, L.; Cornax, I.; Brown, C. C.; Kapczynski, D. R.; Suarez, D. L.; King, D. J.; Miller, P. J. and Afonso, C. L. (2011). Virulent Newcastle disease virus elicits a strong innate immune response in chickens. J. of General Virology. 92: 931-939.
 Davison, F.; Kaspers B. and Schat K. A. (2008). Avian Immunosuppressive Diseases and Immune Evaion. Elsevier Ltd., London, UK.
 Harrison, L. M.; Balan, K. V. and Babu, U. S. (2013). Dietary fatty acids and immune response to food-borne bacterial infections. Nutrients. 5: 1801- 1822.
 Hassanazadeh M.; and Bozorgmeri, M. H. (2004). A Serological Study of Newcastle Disease in Pre- and Post- Vaccinated Village Chickens in North of Iran. 3:658-661.
 Rahman M. M.; Bari A. S. M.; Gaisuddin M.; Islam M. R., Alam. J.; Sil G. C. and Rahman M. M. (2002). Evaluation of Maternal and Humoral Immunity against Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken. International j. of poultry sci. 5:161-163.
 Gross, W. B. and Siegel, H. (1997). Why some get Sick. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 6:453-460.
 Dibner, J. J.; Knight, C. D.; Kitchell, M. L.; Atwell, C. A.; Downs, A. C. and Lvey F. J. (1998). Early feeding development of immune system in neonatal poultry. J. Applied Poult. Res. 7: 425-436.
 Panda, A. K. and Reddy, M. R. (2007). Boosting the chicks immune system through early nutrition. Poultry international.
 Korver, D. R. and Klasing, K. C. (1995). n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid improves growth rate of broiler chickens and decrease interleukin-1 production. Poult. Sci. 74: 1-15.
 Nelson D. L. and Cox, M. M. (2008). Lehninger principles of Biochemistry 5th ed. W. H. Freeman and Company. N. Y.
 Pompéia, C.; Lopes, L. R.; Miyasaka, C. K.; Procópio, J.; Sannomiya, P. and Cur, R. (2000). Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function. Brazilian J. of Medical and Biological Research. 33: 1255-1268.
 Nnadi, P. A. and Ezema, K. C. (2010). The effect of Feed Quality on the Development and Function System in Chiken. Poult Sci. 9: 334-339.
 Fahey A. G. and Cheng H. W. (2008). Group Size and Density Effects on Physical Indices and Cell-Mediated Immunity in Two Genetic Lines of White Leghorn Layers. Poultry Science 87: 2500–2504.
 Marko, M. G.; Ahmed, T.; Bunnell, S. C.; Wu, D.; Chung, H., Huber, B. T.; Meydani, S.N. (2007). Age-associated decline in effective immune synapse formation of CD4 T cells is reversed by vitamin E supplementation. J. Immunol. 178:1443-1449.
 Norup, L. R.; Dalgaard, T. S.; Pedersen, A. R. and Juul-Madsen, H. R. (2011). Assessment of Newcastle Disease–Specific T Cell Proliferation in Different Inbred MHC Chicken Lines. Scandinavian J. of Immunology. 74: 23-30.
 Ahmed, R. and Gray, D. (1996). Immunological memory and protective immunity understanding their relation. Science. 272: 54-60.
 Sharma, J. M. (1999). Introduction to poultry vaccines and immunity. Adv Vet Med. 41(2): 481-94.
 Tizard 2004
 Cooper, M. D.; Chen, C. H.; Bucy, R. P. and Thompsom, C. B. (1991). Avian T cell ontogeny. Adv. Immunol. 50: 87-117.
 Calder, P. C. (2006). n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83: 1505-1519.
 Yaqoob, P. (2003). Fatty acids as gatekeepers of immune cell regulation. Trends Immunol. 24:639-645.
 Gupta, M. 1.; Mahanty, S., Greer. P.; Towner, J. S.; Shieh, W. J.; Zaki S. R.; Ahmed, R.; Rollin, P. E. (2004). Persistent infection with ebola virus under conditions of partial immunity. J. Virology. 78: 958-967.
 Fessler J.; Ficjan A.; Duftner C.; Dejaco C. (2013). The impact of aging on regulatory T-cells. Front Immunol. 4: 1-20.
 Rauw, F.; Gardin, Y.; Palya, V.; van Borm, S.; Gonze, M.; Lemaire, S.; van den B.T. and Lambrecht, B. (2009). Humoral, cell-mediated and mucosal immunity induced by oculo-nasal vaccination of one-day-old SPF and conventional layer chicks with two different live Newcastle disease vaccines. Vaccine. 27: 3631-3642.
 Reynolds, D. L. and Maraqa, A. D. (2000). Protective immunity against Newcastle disease: the role of cell-mediated immunity. Avian Dis. 44:145-154.
 Jia. Z.; Cao Y.; Xue Y.; Li F.; Lui M.; Zhang C.; Yang Y. and Duan J. (2014). Analysis of Chicken T Cell-Mediated Responses on Thymus after Immune Stress. Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials. 3: 22-28.