Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32579
Perception of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Hypertension among Iraqi Population: A Pilot Study

Authors: Zahraa Albasry, Hadeel D. Najim, Anmar Al-Taie


Background: Hypertension is considered as one of the most important causes of cardiovascular complications and one of the leading causes of worldwide mortality. Identifying the potential risk factors associated with this medical health problem plays an important role in minimizing its incidence and related complications. The objective of this study is to explore the prevalence of receptor sensitivity regarding assess and understand the perception of specific predictive confounding factors on the prevalence of hypertension (HT) among a sample of Iraqi population in Baghdad, Iraq. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross sectional study was carried out on 100 adult subjects during their visit to the outpatient clinic at a certain sector of Baghdad Province, Iraq. Demographic, clinical and health records alongside specific screening and laboratory tests of the participants were collected and analyzed to detect the potential of confounding factors on the prevalence of HT. Results: 63% of the study participants suffered from HT, most of them were female patients (P < 0.005). Patients aged between 41-50 years old significantly suffered from HT than other age groups (63.5%, P < 0.001). 88.9% of the participants were obese (P < 0.001) and 47.6% had diabetes with HT. Positive family history and sedentary lifestyle were significantly higher among all hypertensive groups (P < 0.05). High salt and fatty food intake was significantly found among patients suffered from isolated systolic hypertension (ISHT) (P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation between packed cell volume (PCV) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.353, P = 0.048) found among normotensive participants. Among hypertensive patients, a positive significant correlation found between triglycerides (TG) and both SBP (r = 0.484, P = 0.031) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r = 0.463, P = 0.040), while low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) showed a positive significant correlation with DBP (r = 0.443, P = 0.021). Conclusion: The prevalence of HT among Iraqi populations is of major concern. Further consideration is required to detect the impact of potential risk factors and to minimize blood pressure (BP) elevation and reduce the risk of other cardiovascular complications later in life.

Keywords: Correlation, hypertension, Iraq, risk factors.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 757


[1] RB. Shaikh, E. Mattew, J. Sreedharan, J. Muttappallymyatlil J, S. Al Sharbalti, SA. Basha ‘‘Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university,’’ J Family Community Med., vol. 18, no. 3, p. 124–9,2011.
[2] E. Asekun-Olarinmoye, P. Akinwusi, W. Adebimpe, MA. Isawumi, MB. Hassan, O. Olowe, et al. ‘‘Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State,’’ South Western Nigeria. Int J Gen Med., vol. 6, p.317–22, 2013.
[3] JD. Parr, W. Lindeboom, MA Khanam, TL. Perez Koehlmoos, ‘‘Diagnosis of chronic conditions with modifiable life style risk factors in selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh and socio-demographic variability therein, ’’ BMC Health serv Res., vol.11, p.309, 2011.
[4] M. Thompson, T. Dana, C. Bougatsos, I. Blazina, SL. Norris, ‘‘Screening for hypertension in children and adolescents to prevent cardiovascular disease,’’ Pediatrics, vol. 131, no. 3, p. 490–525, 2013.
[5] RW. Mayega, F. Makumbi, E. Rutebemberwa, S. Peterson, CG. Ostenson, G. Tomson G,et al, ‘‘Modifiable socio-behavioural factors associated with overweight and hypertension among persons aged 35 to 60 years in eastern Uganda,’’ PLoS one, vol.7, p.e47632, 2012.
[6] MU. Sani, KW. Wahab, BO. Yusuf, M. Gbadamosi, OV. Johnson, A. Gbadamosi’’ Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerian population-A cross sectional study,’’ BMC Res Notes, vol. 3, p11, 2010.
[7] J. Wang, W. Sun, GA. Wells, Z. Li, T. Li , J. Wu, et al, ‘‘Differences in prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in urban and rural residents of the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China: A cross-sectional study,’ PLoS ONE. vol. 13, no.4, p.e0195340, 2018.
[8] M. Domanski, G. Mitchell, M. Pfeffer, JD. Neaton, J. Norman, K. Svendsen, et al, ‘‘Pulse pressure and cardiovascular disease-related mortality: follow-up study of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT),’’ JAMA, vol. 287, p.2677–2683, 2002.
[9] SS. Franklin, VA. Lopez, ND. Wong, GF. Mitchell, MG. Larson, RS. Vasan, D. Levy, ‘‘Single versus combined blood pressure components and risk for cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study,’’ Circulation, vol. 119, no. 2, p.243–250, 2009.
[10] L. Landsberg, M. Molitch ‘‘Diabetes and hypertension: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment,’’ Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 26, no. (7-8), p. 621-628, 2004.
[11] TM. Coffman, ‘‘The inextricable role of the kidney in hypertension’’ J Clin Invest, vol. 124, no. 6, p. 2341-7, 2014.
[12] P. Ranasinghe, DN. Cooray, R. Jayawardena, P. Katulanda, ‘‘The influence of family history of Hypertension on disease prevalence and associated metabolic risk factors among Sri Lankan adults,’’ BMC Public Health, vol. 15, p.576, 2015.
[13] A. Varghese, ML. Abraham , R. Ramachandran, S. Thomas, ‘‘A prospective study on the relationship between blood pressure and blood group among adult male blood donors in a Tertiary care center’’, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, vol. 2, no. 1, p.51-55, 2015.
[14] FJ. He, GA. MacGregor, ‘‘Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease,’’ Curr Opin Cardiol, vol.22, p.298-305, 2007.
[15] C. Kong, l. Nimmo, t. Elatrozy, V. Anyaoku, C. Hughes, S. Robinson, et al. Smoking is associated with increased hepatic lipase activity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and early atherosclerosis in Type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis, vol.156, no.2, p. 373–8, 2002.
[16] K. Narkiewicz, ‘‘Diagnosis and management of hypertension in obesity,’’ ObesRev, vol. 7, p.155–62, 2006.
[17] E. Cihangir, H. Arif, K. Mustafa. Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension and associated risk factors among Turkish adults: Trabzon Hypertension Study, Journal of Public Health, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 2008.
[18] D. Rajashree, R. Anitha, K. Prashanth, ‘‘The Relationship Between Lipid Profile and hypertension, International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research,, vol.3, no. 2,p.447-450, 2016.
[19] B. Williams, G. Mancia, W. Spiering, E. Agabiti Rosei, M. Azizi, M. Burnier M, et al, ‘‘2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH),’’ J Hypertens., vol. 36, no. 10, p.1953-2041, 2018.
[20] World Health Organization. 2008. Iraq celebrates World Health Day under the theme of hypertension. Accessed 13 Jan 2019.
[21] H.M. Khaleduzzaman, M. Nafisa Jabin, ‘‘Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Aguelhok,’’ Medical Sciences, vol. 03, no. 02, p. 011-018, 2018.
[22] AE. Onal, S. Erbil, S. Ozel, K. Aciksari, Y. Tumerdem, ‘‘The prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in adults living in Istanbul,’’ Blood Press, vol.13, no.1, p, 31–6, 2004.
[23] S. Shikha, S. Ravi, S. Gyan, ‘‘Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Varanasi,’’ International Journal of Hypertension, vol. 2017, Article ID 5491838, 10 pages, 2017.
[24] Z. Sun, ‘‘Aging, arterial stiffness, and hypertension. Hypertension,’’ vol.65, no.2, p.252-6, 2014.
[25] L. Cohen, G. C. Curhan, J. P. Forman, “Influence of age on the association between lifestyle factors and risk of hypertension,” Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, vol.6, no.4, pp.284–290, 2012.
[26] XiaoliLiu, ZhengXiang, Xiangrong Shi, Hannah Schenck, Xinfeng Yi, Rong Ni, Chaoneng Liu, ‘‘The Risk Factors of High Blood Pressure among Young Adults in the Tujia-Nationality Settlement of China,’’ BioMed Research International, Volume 2017, Article ID 8315603, 6 pages, 2017.
[27] K. Shishani, R. Dajani, Y. Khader, ‘‘Hypertension risk assessment in the largest ethnic groups in Jordan,’’ J Immigr Minority Health, vol.15, no.1, p.43–8. 16, 2011.
[28] QJ. Fadheel, AA. Hussein, ‘‘Prevalence and Life Style Determinants of Hypertension among Women in Iraq,’’ J Pharm Res., vol. 1, no.3, p. 000120, 2017.
[29] A. Henok, T. Frew, B. Ermias, ‘‘Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study,’’ BMC Res Notes., vol.10, p.629, 2017
[30] A. Humayun, AS. Shah, R. Sultana, ‘‘Relation of hypertension with body mass index and age in male and female population of Peshawar, Pakistan,’’ J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, vol.21, p.63-5, 2009.
[31] H. Nay, S. Hitomi, I. Shino, S. Wakana, T. Hidemi Takimoto, ‘‘Food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese adults: analyses from the 2012 National Health and nutrition survey, Japan,’’ Nutrition Journal, vol. 16, p.61, 2017.
[32] J. Hitesh, B. Priti, S. Chandankumar, M. Maulik, ‘‘Comparative study of serum lipid profile between prehypertensive and normotensive,’’ Int J Res Med Sci., vol. 2, no.4, p.1648-1651, 2014.
[33] P. Rust, C. Ekmekcioglu, ‘‘Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension,’’ Adv Exp Med Biol., vol. 956, p.61-84, 2017.
[34] H. Sung, ‘‘Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension,’’ Electrolyte Blood Press, vol. 12, p.7-18, 2014.
[35] JW Peter, ‘’Retinopathy,’’ BMJ, vol. 32, no.7395, p. 924, 2003.
[36] M. Emamian, SM. Hasanian, M. Tayefi, M. Bijari, FF. Movahedian, M. Shafiee, et al, ‘‘Association of hematocrit levels with blood pressure and hypertension’’. J Clin Lab Anal., vol. 31, p.e22124, 2017.
[37] SY. Jae, S. Kurl, JA. Laukkanen, KS. Heffernan, J. Choo, YH. Choi, et al, ‘‘Higher blood hematocrit predicts hypertension in men,’’ J Hypertens., vol. 32, p.245–250, 2014.
[38] X. Liu, J. Liang, Q. Qiu, Y. Zhu , Y. Sun, P. Ying P, et al, ‘‘ Association of hematocrit and prehypertension among Chinese adults: the CRC study,’’ Cell Biochem Biophys.,vol. 71, p.1123–1128, 2015.
[39] J. Mohamad, ‘‘ABO and rhesus blood group distribution in Kurds, ‘’J Blood Med., vol. 1 p.143-6, 2010.
[40] K. Maninder, ‘‘Association between ABO Blood Group and Hypertension among Post-menopausal Females of North India, The Anthropologist, vol. 17, no. 2,p. 677-680,2014.
[41] A. Kondam, M. Chandrashekar, ‘‘A study of incidence of hypertension in ABO and rhesus blood group system, International Journal of Biological Medical Research, vol. 3, p.1426-1429, 2012.
[42] MA. Asafa, O. Ogunlade, RA. Bolarinwa, ‘‘Effect of Abo Blood Group on Blood Pressure Indices among Apparently Healthy Young Adults of Yoruba Ethnicity in Ile-Ife, ’’ J Blood Lymph., vol. 8, p.1, 2018.
[43] CJ. O’Donnell, EG. Nabel, ‘‘Genomics of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med., vol. 365, no.22, p. 2098-109, 2011.
[44] L. Landsberg L, M. Molitch, ‘‘Diabetes and hypertension: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. Clin Exp Hypertens., vol. 26, no. 7-8, p.621-8, 2004.
[45] L. Landsberg L, M. Molitch, ‘‘Diabetes and hypertension: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. Clin Exp Hypertens., vol. 26, no. 7-8, p.621-8, 2004.