Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30127
Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: Activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, ammonium (NH4-N), chemical oxygen demand (COD), greywater, nitrate (NO3-N), total suspended solids (TSS).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2643647

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 308

References:


[1] WHO. (2006). Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater. World Health Organization. 9241546824.
[2] WHO. (2010). World Health statistics. World Health Organization. 9241563982.
[3] Rijsberman, F.R. (2006). Water scarcity: Fact or Fiction? Agricultural Water Management, 80(1-3), 5-22.
[4] Bakir, H.A. (2001). Sustainable wastewater management for small communities in the Middle East and North Africa. Journal of Environmental Management, 61(4), 319 – 328.
[5] Laaffat, J., Aziz, F., Ouazzani, N. & Mandi, L. (2016) ‘Biotechnological approach of greywater treatment and reuse for landscape irrigation in small communities’, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. pp: 1-8.
[6] Eriksson, E., Auffarth, K., Henze, M. & Ledin, A. (2002). Characteristics of grey wastewater. Urban Water, 4 (1), 85-104.
[7] Al- Jayyousi, O.R. 2003. Greywater reuse: towards sustainable water management. Desalination. 156, 181-192.
[8] Friedler, E. (2004). Quality of individual domestic greywater streams and its implication on on-site treatment and reuse possibilities. Environmental technology, 25(9), pp: 997-1008.
[9] Dalahmeh, S. S., Lalander, C., Pell, M., Vinnerås, B. & Jönsson, H. (2016) Quality of greywater treated in biochar filter and risk assessment of gastroenteritis due to household exposure during maintenance and irrigation, Journal of Applied Microbiology. Pp:1427-1443.
[10] Dalahmeh, S. S., Jönsson, H., Hylander, L. D., Hui, N., Yu, D. & Pell, M. (2014) ‘Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater’, Water Research, 54, pp. 21–32.
[11] Travis, M.J., Wiel-Shafran, A., Weisbrod, N., Adar, E. & Gross, A. (2010). Greywater reuse for irrigation: Effect on soil properties. Science of The Total Environment 408(12), 2501-2508.
[12] Barişçi, S. & Turkay, O. (2016) ‘Domestic greywater treatment by electrocoagulation using hybrid electrode combinations’, Journal of Water Process Engineering, 10, pp. 56–66.
[13] Chrispim, M. C. & Nolasco, M. A. (2017) ‘Greywater treatment using a moving bed biofilm reactor at a university campus in Brazil’, Journal of Cleaner Production. Elsevier Ltd, 142, pp. 290–296.
[14] Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J. & Rondon, M., (2006). Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, (11), 403–427.
[15] Jeppesen, B. (1996). Domestic Greywater reuse: Australian challenge for the future. Desalination, 106 (1-3), pp: 311-315
[16] Dixon, A.M., Butler, D. & Fewkes, A. (1999). Guidelines for greywater reuse: Health issues. Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 13, pp: 322-326
[17] Morel, A. & Diener, S. (2006). Greywater management in low and middle-income countries, review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. Dübendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag).
[18] Butler, D., Friedler E. &Gatt K. (1995). Characterizing the quantity and quality of domestic wastewater. Water Science and Technology, 31(7), pp: 13-24
[19] Drechsel, P., Danso, G. & Qadir, M., (2015). Wastewater Use in Agriculture: Challenges in Assessing Costs and Benefits. Wastewater, pp 139-152.
[20] Timur, O.B. & Karaca, E., (2013). Vertical Gardens, Advances in Landscape Architecture Murat Özyavuz, IntechOpen, Available from https://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-landscape-architecture/vertical-gardens (Accessed: 24 August 2018).
[21] Li, F., Wichmann, K. & Otterpohl, R. (2009). Review of the technological approaches for greywater treatment and reuses. Science of the Total Environment, 407(11), pp.3439-3449
[22] Ghunmi, L.A., Zeeman, G., Lier, J.V. & Fayyed, M. (2008). Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan. Water Science & Technology 58(7), pp. 1385-1396.
[23] Boyjoo Y., Pareek V.K. & Ang M., (2013), A review of greywater characteristics and treatment processes, Water Science & Technology, 67, pp. 1403-1424.
[24] Friedler, E. & Gilboa, Y. (2010). Performance of UV disinfection and the microbial quality of greywater effluent along a reuse system for toilet flushing. Science of the Total Environment, 408, pp. 2109-2117
[25] O’Toole, J., Sinclair, M., Malawaraarachchi, M., Hamilton, A., Barker, S.F. & Leder, K. (2012). Microbial quality assessment of household greywater. Water Research 46(13), 4301-4313.
[26] Pidou M, Avery L, Stephenson T, Jeffrey P, Parsons S.A., Liu S., Memon F.A. & Bruce Jefferson B., 2008. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling. Chemosphere 71(1):147–55.
[27] Ghaitidak, D.M., Yadav, K.D., (2013). Characteristics and treatment of greywater—A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20, pp. 2795-2809.
[28] Wurochekke, A. A., Harun, N. A., Mohamed, R. M. S. R. & Kassim, A. H. B. M. (2014) ‘Constructed Wetland of Lepironia Articulata for Household Greywater Treatment’, APCBEE Procedia. Elsevier B.V., 10, pp. 103–109.
[29] Palmquist. H., Hanaeus. J., (2005). Hazardous substances in separately collected grey- and blackwater from ordinary Swedish households. Science of the Total Environment, 348, pp.151 -163.
[30] Morgan, K.T., Wheaton, T.A., Parsons, L.R. & Castle, W.S., (2008). Effects of Reclaimed Municipal Waste Water on Horticultural Characteristics, Fruit Quality, and Soil and Leaf Mineral Concentration of Citrus. 43(2), pp. 459-464
[31] Ridderstolpe. P., (2004). Introduction to greywater management. EcoSanRes Publication Series. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
[32] Christina Berger (2012) ‘Biochar and activated carbon filters for grey water treatment - comparison of organic matter and nutrient removal’, Swedish University of Agriculture and Science, pp. 1–36.
[33] Daughton, C.G., & Ternes, T.A. (1999). Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: Agents of subtle change. Environmental Health Perspect. 107, 907-938.
[34] Cao, X. D., Ma, L. N.; Gao, B. & Harris, W. (2009). Dairy-Manure Derived Biochar Effectively Sorbs Lead and Atrazine. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, (9), 3285-3291.
[35] Major, J., Rondon, M.; Molina, D., Riha, S. J. & Lehmann, J., (2010). Maize yield and nutrition during four years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant and Soil, 333, (1-2), 117-128.
[36] Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C. & Crowley, D. (2011). Biochar effects on soil biota - A review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43(9), 1812-1836.
[37] Dalahmeh, S. S., Pell, M., Vinnerås, B., Hylander, L. D., Öborn, I. & Jönsson, H. (2012) ‘Efficiency of bark, activated charcoal, foam and sand filters in reducing pollutants from greywater’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 223(7), pp. 3657–3671.