Negotiating Across Cultures: The Case of Hungarian Negotiators
Authors: Júlia Szőke
Negotiating across cultures needs consideration as different cultures have different norms, habits and behavioral patterns. The significance of cross-cultural negotiations lies in the fact that many business relationships have already failed due to the lack of cultural knowledge. Therefore, the paper deals with cross-cultural negotiations in case of Hungarian business negotiators. The aim of the paper is to introduce the findings of a two-phase research conducted among Hungarian business negotiators. In the first phase a qualitative research was conducted to reveal the importance of cultural differences in case of cross-cultural business negotiations from the viewpoint of Hungarian negotiators, whereas in the second phase a quantitative one was conducted to figure out whether cultural stereotypes affect the way how the respondents negotiate with people coming from different cultures. The research found out that in case of Hungarian negotiators it is mostly the lack of cultural knowledge that lurks behind the problems and miscommunication occurring during the negotiations. The research also revealed that stereotypes have an influence on the negotiation styles of Hungarian negotiators. The paper concludes that culture and cultural differences must be taken into consideration in case of cross-cultural negotiations so that problems and misunderstandings could be avoided.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2643527Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 543
 W. V. Schmidt, R. N. Conaway, S. S. Easton, and W. J. Wardrope, Communicating Globally. Intercultural Communication and International Business. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2007.
 L. Ablonczyné Mihályka, “Assessing the development of intercultural sensitivity in business settings: How to interact successfully with people belonging to another nation,” Tér-Gazdaság-Ember, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 22–36, 2015
 A. Tompos, “Miscommunication during international negotiations: how much do cross-cultural differences and foreign language knowledge differ?,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Academic Conference, J. Rotschedl, K. Cermakova, Eds. Prague: International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences, 2015, pp. 750–758.
 Á. Borgulya, N. Kiss, “Social capital, trust and cross-cultural communication of companies,” in Culture of Business – Capital of Culture: International Conference, I. Tarrósy, Sz. Szilágyi, Eds. Pécs: Pécsi Tudományegyetem Közgazdaságtudományi Kar, 2010, pp. 25–35.
 J. Szőke, “Managing cultural differences when doing business internationally,” International Journal of Business and Management Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 349–357, 2013
 G. Hofstede, G. J. Hofstede, and M. Minkov, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2010.
 A. Holliday, Understanding Intercultural Communication: Negotiating a Grammar of Culture. London: Routledge, 2013.
 R. R. Gesteland, Cross-Cultural Business Behavior. Negotiating, Selling, Sourcing and Managing Across Cultures. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press, Liber, Universitetsforlaget, 2005.
 R. J. Volkema, “Demographic, cultural, and economic predictors of perceived ethicality of negotiation behavior: a nine-country analysis,” Journal of Business Research, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 69–78, Jan. 2004
 W. Lippmann, Public Opinion. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1922.
 D. Katz, K. Braly, “Racial stereotypes of one hundred college students,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 280–290, Oct. 1933
 G. W. Allport, The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1954.
 S. T. Fiske, Social Beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010.
 R. C. Ashmore, F. K. Del Boca, “Conceptual approaches to stereotypes and stereotyping,” in Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behaviour, D. L. Hamilton, Ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1981, pp. 1–35.
 C. McCauley, C. L. Stitt, “An individual and quantitative measure of stereotypes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 929–940, Sep. 1978
 J. Nádai, “Stereotypes: an obstacle or trigger to business success?,” European Journal of Sustainable Development, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 174– 180, Jan. 2017
 D. Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
 L. Ablonczyné Mihályka, “When in Rome do as the Romans do: is it reality of business life?,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Academic Conference, J. Rotschedl, K. Cermakova, Eds. Prague: International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences, 2014, pp. 1–9.
 A. Tompos, “Hungarian societal values through business negotiators’ practices,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Academic Conference, J. Rotschedl, K. Cermakova, Eds. Prague: International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences, 2014, pp. 445–453.
 K. Peleckis, V. Peleckiené, K. Peleckis, “Trust building problems in business negotiations and business meetings: interference, stereotypes, trust substitutes,” Journal of Management Policies and Practices, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 51–59, Dec. 2015
 F. Trompenaars, Riding the Waves of Culture. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1995.
 E. T. Hall, Beyond Culture. New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1977.