A Constructive Analysis of the Formation of LGBTQ Families: Where Utopia and Reality Meet
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32870
A Constructive Analysis of the Formation of LGBTQ Families: Where Utopia and Reality Meet

Authors: Panagiotis Pentaris


The issue of social and legal recognition of LGBTQ families is of high importance when exploring the possibility of a family. Of equal importance is the fact that both society and the individual contribute to the overall recognition of LGBTQ families. This paper is a conceptual discussion, by methodology, of both sides; it uses a method of constructive analysis to expound on this issue. This method’s aim is to broaden conceptual theory, and introduce a new relationship between concepts that were previously not associated by evidence. This exploration has found that LGBTQ realities from an international perspective may differ and both legal and social rights are critical toward self-consciousness and the formation of a family. This paper asserts that internalised and historic oppression of LGBTQ individuals, places them, not always and not in all places, in a disadvantageous position as far as engaging with the potential of forming a family goes. The paper concludes that lack of social recognition and internalised oppression are key barriers regarding LGBTQ families.

Keywords: Family, gay, LGBTQ, self-worth, social rights.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3607828

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2103


[1] J. Haritaworn, A. Kuntsman, and S. Posocco, Queer necropolitics. London, UK: Routledge, 2014.
[2] A. K. Baumle, and R. D'Lane, Legalizing LGBT families: How the law shapes parenthood. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2017.
[3] N. J. Mezey, LGBT families. London, UK: Sage, 2015.
[4] T. Ciabattari, Sociology of families: Change, continuity and diversity. London, UK: Sage, 2017.
[5] D. Chambers, A sociology of family life: Change and diversity in intimate relations. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2012.
[6] S. Ahern, and K. G. Bailey, Family-by-choice: Creating family in a world of strangers. Minneapolis, MN: Fairview Press, 1996.
[7] K. M. Haines, C. R. Boyer, C. Giovanazzi, and M. P. Galupo, ‘“Not a Real Family”: Microaggressions Directed toward LGBTQ Families,’ Journal of homosexuality, vol.65(9), 2018, pp.1138-1151.
[8] J. Trost, “Do we mean the same by the concept of family,” Communication Research, vol.17(4), 1990, pp.431-443.
[9] M. L. Picq, and M. Thiel, eds., Sexualities in world politics: How LGBTQ claims shape international relations. London, UK: Routledge, 2015.
[10] Z. Ardi, and F. M. Yendi, “Students Attitude Towards LGBTQ; the Future Counselor Challenges,” Jurnal Konseling dan Pendidikan, vol.5(2), 2017, pp.74-79.
[11] M. R. Yost, and S. Gilmore, “Assessing LGBTQ campus climate and creating change,” Journal of Homosexuality, vol.58(9), 2011, pp.1330-1354.
[12] R. L. Kitts, “Barriers to optimal care between physicians and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescent patients,” Journal of Homosexuality, vol.57(6), 2010, pp.730-747.
[13] M. Bronski, A queer history of the United States (Vol. 1). Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2011.
[14] A. Narrain, and G. Bhan, Because I have a Voice. Queer Politics in India, Delhi: Yoda, 2005.
[15] R. M. Baird, and S. E. Rosenbaum, eds., Same-sex marriage: The moral and legal debate. Amherst, NY: Pyr Books, 2004.
[16] G. M. Herek, “Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective,” American Psychologist, vol.61(6), 2006, p.607.
[17] T. J. Biblarz, and E. Savci, “Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender families,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol.72(3), 2010, pp.480-497.
[18] K. R. Chávez, “Border (in) securities: Normative and differential belonging in LGBTQ and immigrant rights discourse,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, vol.7(2), 2010, pp.136-155.
[19] C. Beyrer, “Pushback: the current wave of anti-homosexuality laws and impacts on health,” PLoS Medicine, vol.11(6), 2014, p. e1001658.
[20] B. Greene, “African American women, religion, and oppression: The use and abuse of spiritual beliefs,” in C. A. Rayburn & L. Comas-Díaz, eds., Women's psychology. Woman soul: The inner life of women's spirituality. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, pp.153-166.
[21] G. A. Appleby, E. Colon, and J. Hamilton, Diversity, oppression, and social functioning: Person-in-environment assessment and intervention. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2007.
[22] J. M. Clarke, J. C. Brown, and L. M. Hochstein, “Institutional religion and gay/lesbian oppression,” Marriage & Family Review, vol.14(3-4), 1989, pp.265-284.
[23] E. Dussel, “Popular religion as oppression and liberation: hypotheses on its past and present in Latin America,” Concilium, vol.186, 1986, pp.83-85.
[24] M. Gardner, “Baden-Württemberg's Science Policy: Boosting International Competitiveness,” Industry and Higher Education, vol.4(2), 1990, pp.113-118.
[25] N. Drydakis, “Sexual orientation discrimination in the United Kingdom’s labour market: A field experiment,” Human Relations, vol.68(11), 2015, pp.1769-1796.
[26] R. Ronald, and A. Alexy, eds., Home and family in Japan: continuity and transformation. London, UK: Routledge, 2017.
[27] C. Wilkinson, “Putting traditional values into practice: Russia’s anti-gay laws,” Russian analytical digest, vol.138, 2013, pp.5-7.
[28] M. Hollander, “Gay rights in Uganda: seeking to overturn Uganda's anti-sodomy laws,” Virginia Journal of International Law, vol.50, 2009, pp.219-266.
[29] A. Karimi, and Z. Bayatrizi, “Dangerous positions: Male homosexuality in the new penal code of Iran,” Punishment & Society, 2018, pp.1-18. Published online http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1462474518787465.
[30] S. Keuzenkamp, and L. Kuyper, Acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in the Netherlands 2013. The Netherlands Institute of Social Research: Report, 2013.
[31] B. A. Firestein, Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority. London, UK: Sage, 1996.
[32] A. E. Goldberg, and K. R. Allen, eds., LGBT-parent families: Innovations in research and implications for practice. New York, NY: Springer, 2012.
[33] J. Takács, Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Europe. Brussels, Belgium: ILGA Europe, 2006.
[34] G. M. Herek, and J. P. Capitanio, “AIDS stigma and sexual prejudice,” American behavioral scientist, vol.42(7), 1999, pp.1130-1147.
[35] R. Martin, On the justification of rights. In F. Stoutland, Philosophy of action/Philosophie de l’action. Springer, Dordrecht, 1982, pp.153-186.
[36] N. Chakraborti, and J. Garland, eds., Responding to hate crime: The case for connecting policy and research. Bristol, UK: Policy Press, 2015.
[37] N. Walter, T. J. Billard, and S. T. Murphy, “On the boundaries of framing terrorism: Guilt, victimization, and the 2016 Orlando shooting,” Mass Communication and Society, vol.20(6), 2017, pp.849-868.
[38] G. M. Herek, ed., Stigma and sexual orientation (Vol. 4). London, UK: Sage, 1998.
[39] C. H. Rosik, L. K. Griffith, and Z. Cruz, “Homophobia and conservative religion: Toward a more nuanced understanding,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol.77(1), 2007, pp.10-19.
[40] R. Bellamy, Citizenship: A very short introduction (Vol. 192). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2008.
[41] A. Honneth, The struggle for recognition: The moral grammar of social conflicts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.
[42] E. J. R. David, ed., Internalized oppression: The psychology of marginalized groups. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, 2013.
[43] W. Wolfensberger, “Social role valorization: A proposed new term for the principle of normalization,” Mental retardation, vol.21(6), 1983, p.234.
[44] R. S. Weiss, Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973.
[45] K. J. Doka, Disenfranchised grief: New directions, challenges, and strategies for practice. Champaign, IL: Research Press, 2002.
[46] E. Goffman, Stigma: Notes on a spoiled identity. Buckingham, UK: Jenkins, 1963.
[47] H. M. Bos, and F. Van Balen, “Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors,” Culture, Health & Sexuality, vol.10(3), 2008, pp.221-236.
[48] D. L. Bevan, and A. K. Fosu, “Globalisation: An overview,” Journal of African Economies, vol.12(suppl_1), 2003, pp.1-13.
[49] L. G. Nungesser, Homosexual acts, actors, and identities. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers, 1983.
[50] Stonewall, LGBT in Britain: Hate crime and discrimination. London, UK: Stonewall, 2017.