The Use of Microorganisms in the Bioleaching of Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals
This paper shows researches in order to extract Cr, Cu and Ni from the polluted soils. Research is based on preliminary studies regarding the usage of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacterium (9K medium) for bioleaching of soil polluted with heavy metal (Cu, Cr and Ni). The microorganisms (Thiobacillus ferooxidans) selected directly from polluted soil samples were used in this experimental work. Soil samples used in the experimental research were taken from an area polluted with heavy metals from Romania. The soil samples are subjected to the cleaning process using the 9K medium solution (20 mL and 40 mL, respectively), stirred 200 rpm for 20 hours at a controlled temperature (30 ˚C). During the experiment (0, 2, 4, 8 and 20 h), liquid samples have been extracted and analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AA-6800 (AAS) in order to determine the Cr, Cu and Ni concentration. Experiments led to the conclusion that these soils can be depolluted by bioleaching, being a biological treatment method involving the use of microorganisms to favor the extraction of Cr, Cu and Ni from polluted soils.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2579980Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 I. M. Berar (Sur), C. S. Cociorhan, V. Oros, V. Micle, M. Coma, J. Juhas, G. Taro, B. Falaus and R. Pop. Research regarding metal contents of soil from Romplumb Baia Mare, in order to establish the remedial techniques. Scientific Bulletin of North University of Baia Mare, 2010, vol. 24, pp. 33–38.
 J.-Yu Zhu, J.-X. Zhang, Q. Li, T. Han, Y.-H. Hu, X.-D. Liu, W.-Q. Qin, L.-Y. Chai and G.-Z. Qiu. Bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated alkaline sediment by auto- and heterotrophic bacteria in stirred tank reactor. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2014, vol. 24, pp. 2969−2975.
 S. O. Rastegar, S. M. Mousavi, S. A. Shojaosadati and T. Gu. Bioleaching of fuel-oil ash using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in shake flasks and a slurry bubble column bioreactor. RSC Advances, 2016, vol. 26, pp. 2–3.
 W. H. Rulkens, J. T. C. Grotenhuis and R. Tichy. Methods forcleaning contaminated soils and sediments (M). Berlin: Springer, 1995, pp. 151−191.
 S. Feng, H. Yang, W Wanga. Insights into the enhancement mechanism coupled with adapted adsorption behavior from mineralogical aspects in bioleaching of copper-bearing sulfide ore by Acidithiobacillus sp., 2015, pp. 119.
 I. M Berar (Sur), V. Micle, S. Avram, M. Şenilă and V. Oros. Bioleaching of some heavy metals from polluted soils. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 2012, vol. 11(8), pp.1389–393.
 C. S. Cociorhan, V. Micle and I. M. Berar (Sur). Research On distribution method of heavy metals by Soil profile from Romplumb, Baia Mare. Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din Iasi-Seria: Stiinta si Ingineria Materialelor, 2011, Tomul LVII (LXI), Fasc. 3, Editura Politehnium, pp. 41–48.
 A. M. Babau, V. Micle, G. E. Damian and S. Varvara. Health risk assessment analysis in two highly polluted mining areas from Zlatna (Romania). Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, Risk assessment, 2017a, vol. 18(4), pp. 1416–1424.
 A. M. Babau, V. Micle and I. M. Sur. Study on physico-chemical properties of soil in the Radeș mine area. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, 2017b, vol. 6, pp. 108–113.
 B. Bayat and B. Sari. Comparative evaluation of microbial and chemical leaching processes for heavy metal removal from dewatered metal plating sludge. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010, vol. 174, pp. 763–769.
 A. Priya and S. Hait. Extraction of metals from high grade waste printed circuit board by conventional and hybrid bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Hydrometallurgy, 2018, vol. 177, pp. 132–139.
 F. Beolchini, A. Dell’Anno, V. Fonti, L. Rocchetti, S. Ubaldini, F. Vegliò and R. Danovaro. Bioleaching as a bioremediation strategy for dredged sediments polluted by heavy metals. 4th European Bioremediation Conference, 2008, pp. 1–5.
 J. F. Blais, R. D. Tyagi and J. C. Auclair. Bioleaching of metals from sewage sludge: Microorganisms and growth kinetics. Water Research, 1993, vol. 27, pp 101–110.
 D. Couillard, M. Chartier and G. Mercier. Study of the abduction of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn by biological solubilization in the lacustrine sediments heavily contaminated (Étude de l'enlèvement du Cd, Cu, Mn et Zn par solubilisation biologique dans les sédiments lacustres fortement contaminés). Revue des sciences de l'eau/Journal of Water Science, 1994, vol. 7, pp. 251–268.
 J.-M. Fontmorin and S. Mika. Bioleaching and combined bioleaching/Fenton-like processes for the treatment of urban anaerobically digested sludge: Removal of heavy metals and improvement of the sludge dewaterability. Separation and Purification Technology, 2015, vol. 156, pp. 655–664.
 N.R. Kumar and R. Nagendran. Fraction behavior of heavy metals in soil during bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009, vol. 169, pp 1119–1126.
 L. Qiang, W. Cong, L. Baobin, S. Cunmin, D. Fei, S. Cunjiang and W. Shufang. Isolation of Thiobacillus spp. and its application in the removal of heavy metals from activated sludge. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2012, vol. 11(97), pp. 16336–16341.
 C. White, A. K Shaman, and G. M. Gadd. An integrated microbial process for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with toxic metals. Nature Biotechnology, 1998, vol. 16, pp. 572–575.
 STAS 7184/1–84 Soils. Sampling for soil and agrochemical studies (in Romanian).
 ***, SR ISO 10381–6:1997. Soil quality. Part 6: Guidance on the collection, handling and storage of soil under aerobic conditions for the assessment of microbiological processes, biomass and diversity in the laboratory (in Romanian).
 SR ISO 11464:1998. The quality of soil. Pretreatment of samples for physical-chemical analysis, (in Romanian).
 M. Jelea. Microbiology of chemolithotrophic and sulfoxidating bacteria. Ed. Universităţii de Nord Baia Mare, 2007 (in Romanian).
 M. P. Silverman and D. G. Lundgren. Studies on the chemoautotrophic iron bacterium Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans. I. An improved medium and a harvesting procedure for securing high cell yields. Journal of Bacteriology, 1959, vol. 77, pp. 642–647.
 Order no. 756 of 11.03.1997 approving the regulations on environmental pollution assessment, Official Gazette no. 303 of 11/06/1997 (in Romanian).
 G. A. Brusturean and D. M. Perju. Extraction under low pressure or in situ ventilation - a comparative study of the performance of the remediation of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds. AGIR Bulletin, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 224–229 (in Romanian).