Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30135
Effect of Vitamin D3 on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Prognosis, Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Overweight Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Abstract:Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are common in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain in PCOS is an important factor for the development of menstrual dysfunction and signs of hyperandrogenism and alopecia. Features of PCOS such as oligomenorrhea can be predicted by anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI). Therefore, the aim of this trial was to study the effect of 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ supplementation on the body composition and on the anthropometric measurements of overweight women with PCOS and to examine the impact of this effect on ovaries ultrasonography and menstrual cycle regularity. The study design was a prospective randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 overweight Jordanian women aged (18-49) years with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. The study participants were divided into two groups; vitamin D group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ and placebo group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive placebo tablets orally for 90 days. The anthropometric measurements and body composition were measured at baseline and after treatment for the PCOS and vitamin D deficient women. Also, assessment of the participants’ picture of ovaries by ultrasound and menstrual cycle regulatory were performed before and after treatment. Results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the placebo and vitamin D group basal 25(OH)D levels, body composition and anthropometric parameters. After treatment, vitamin D group serum levels of 25(OH)D increased (12.5 ± 0.61 to 50.2 ± 2.04 ng/mL, (p < 0.001), and decreased (50.2 ± 2.04 to 48.2 ± 2.03 ng/mL, p < 0.001) after 14 days of vitamin D₃ treatment cessation. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In the vitamin D group, there were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in body weight, BMI, waist, and hip circumferences and fat mass. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in fat free mass and total body water. These improvements in both anthropometric and body composition as well as in 25(OH)D concentrations, resulted in significant improvements in the picture of PCOS women ovaries ultrasonography and in menstrual cycle regularity, where nearly most of them (93%) had regular cycles after vitamin D₃ supplementation. In the placebo group, there were only significant decreases (p < 0.05) in waist and hip circumferences. It can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation improving serum 25(OH)D levels and PCOS prognosis by reducing body weight of overweight PCOS women and regulating their menstrual cycle.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2579962Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 258
 J. J. Kim, Y. M. Choi, S. J. Chae, K. R. Hwang, S. H. Yoon, M. J. Kim, et al., “Vitamin D deficiency in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Clin. Exp. Reprod. Med., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 80-85, Jun. 2014.
 R. Azziz, E. Carmina, D. Dewailly, E. Diamanti-Kandarakis, H. F. Escobar-Morreale, W. Futterweit, et al., “The androgen excess and PCOS society criteria for the polycystic ovary syndrome: The Complete Task Force Report,” Fertl. Sterl., vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 456-488, Feb. 2009.
 R. L. Thomson, S. Spedding, and J. D. Buckley, “Vitamin D in the etiology and management of polycystic ovary syndrome,” Clin. Endocrinol (Oxf)., vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 343–350, Sep. 2012.
 H. R. Ardabili, B. P. Gargari, and L. Farzadi, “Vitamin D supplementation has no effect on insulin resistance assessment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and vitamin D deficiency,” Nut. Res., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 195–201, Mar. 2012.
 N. E. Hassan, H. A. El-Orabi, Y. M. Eid, and N. R. Mohammed, Effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on metabolic parameters and insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome,” Middle. East. Fertil. Soc. J., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 176–180, May. 2012.
 A. Gambineri, C. Pelusi, V. Vicennati, U. Pagotto, and R. Pasquali, “Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome,” Inter. J. Obes., vol. 26, pp. 883-896, Jun. 2002.
 W. Futterweit, “An endocrine approach to obesity,” In: A. P. Simopoulos, T. B. Vanitallie, and S. P. Gullo, Ed. Obesity: New directions in assessment and management, New York: Charles Press, 1994, pp. 96–121.
 R. Faraji, S. H. Sharami, Z. Zahiri, M. Asghami, E. Kazemnejad, and S. Sadeghi, “Evaluation of relation between anthropometric indices and vitamin d concentrations in women with poly cystic ovary syndrome,” J. Family. Reprod. Health., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 123-129, Sep. 2014.
 G. Conway, D. Dewailly, E. Diamanti-Kandarakis, H. F. Escobar-Morreale, S. Franks, A. Gambineri, et al., “The polycystic ovary syndrome: A position statement from the European society of endocrinology,” Eur. J. Endocrinol., vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 1–29, Oct. 2014.
 M. H. Van Hooff, F. J. Voorhorst, and M. B. Kapstein, “Predictive value of menstrual cycle pattern, body mass index, hormone levels and polycystic ovaries at age 15 years for oligoamenorrhoea at age 18 years,” Hum. Reprod., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 383–92, Feb. 2004.
 R. S. Legro, “The genetics of obesity: Lessons for polycystic ovary syndrome,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 900, no. 1, pp. 193–202, 2002.
 T. Mahmoudi, H. Gourabi, M. Ashrafi, R. S. Yazdi, and Z. Ezabadi, “Calciotropic hormones, insulin resistance, and the polycystic ovary syndrome,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1208–1214, Mar. 2010.
 Z. Lagunova, A. C. Porojnicu, and F. Lindberg, “The dependency of vitamin D status on body mass index, gender, age and season,” Anticancer. Res., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 3713–3720, Sep. 2009.
 G. Muscogiuri, C. Policola, A. Prioletta, G. Sorice, T. Mezza, A. Lassandro, et al., “Low levels of 25(OH)D and insulin-resistance: 2 unrelated features or a cause-effect in PCOS,” Clin. Nutr., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 476-480, Aug. 2012.
 www. clinical trials. gov identifier No. NCT02328404.
 G. W. Snedecor, and W. G. Cochran, Statistical Methods, 7th ed. Iowa State University: University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1980, pp. 115-120.
 H. Selimoglu, C. Duran, S. Kiyici, C. Ersoy, M. Guclu, G. Ozkaya, et al., “The effect of vitamin D replacement therapy on insulin resistance and androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” J. Endocrinol. Investi., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 234–238, Apr. 2010.
 E. Rotterdam, ESHRE-ASRM Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, “Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 81, no.1, pp. 19-25, Jan. 2004.
 R. D. Lee, and D. C. Nieman, “Nutritional Assessment,” 5th ed. New Yourk: McGraw-Hill, 2010, pp. 166-209.
 E. K. Nichols, N. J. Khatib, K. M. Sullivan, K. S. Scanlon, J. P. Wirth, and M. K. Serdula, “Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency among non-pregnant Jordanian women of reproductive age,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 751-756, Jun. 2012.
 A. Batieha, Y. Khader, H. Jaddou, D. Hyassat, Z. Batieha, M. Khateeb, et al., “Vitamin D status in Jordan: Dress style and gender discrepancies,” Ann. Nutr. Metab., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 10-18, Jan. 2011.
 L. Pal, A. Berry, L. Coraluzzi, E. Kustan, C. Danton, J. Shaw, et al., “Therapeutic implications of vitamin D and calcium in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Gynecol. Endocrinol., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 965–968, Dec. 2012.
 H. Rahimi-Ardabili, G. B. Pourghassem, and L. Farzadi, “Effects of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome women with vitamin D deficiency,” J. Endocrinol. Invest., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 28–32, Jan. 2013.
 N. R. Khan, J. Shah, C. M. Stetter, M. E. Lott, A. R. Kunselman, W. C. Dodson, et al., “High-dose vitamin D supplementation and measures of insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, controlled pilot trial,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 1740-1746, Jun. 2014.
 S. Jafari-Sfidvajani, R. Ahangari, M. Hozoori, H. Mozaffari-Khosravi, H. Fallahzadeh, and A. Nadjarzadeh, “The effect of vitamin D supplementation in combination with low-calorie diet on anthropometric indices and androgen hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” J. Endocrinol. Invest., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 597–607, May. 2018.
 N. M. Al-daghri, K. M. Alkharfy, Y. Al-saleh, O. S. Al-attas, M. S. Aokail, A. Al-Othman, et al., “Modest reversal of metabolic syndrome manifestations with vitamin D status correction: a 12-month prospective study,” Metab. Clin. Exp., vol. 161, no. 5, pp. 661-666, May. 2012.
 E. Wehr, O. Trummer, A. Giuliani, H. J. Gruber, T. R. Pieber, and B. Obermayer-Pietsch, “Vitamin D associated polymorphisms are related to insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome,” Eur. J. Endocrinol., vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 741–749, May. 2011.
 H. W. Li, R. E. Brereton, R. A. Anderson, A. M. Wallace, and C. K. Ho, “Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with metabolic risk factors in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Metab., vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 1475-1481, Oct. 2011.
 D. T. Ngo, W. P. Chan, S. Rajendran, T. Heresztyn, A. Amarasekera, A. L. Sverdlov, et al., “Determinants of insulin responsiveness in young women: Impact of polycystic ovarian syndrome, nitric oxide, and vitamin D,” Nitric. Oxide., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 326–330, Oct. 2011.
 B. Rashidi, F. Haghollahi, M. Shariat, and F. Zayerii, “The Effects of Calcium-Vitamin D and Metformin on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A pilot Study,” Taiwan. J. Obstet. Gynecol., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 142–147, Jun. 2009.