Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30855
Investigation of Effective Parameters on Pullout Capacity in Soil Nailing with Special Attention to International Design Codes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Mortezaee


An important and influential factor in design and determining the safety factor in Soil Nailing is the ultimate pullout capacity, or, in other words, bond strength. This important parameter depends on several factors such as material and soil texture, method of implementation, excavation diameter, friction angle between the nail and the soil, grouting pressure, the nail depth (overburden pressure), the angle of drilling and the degree of saturation in soil. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), a customary regulation in the design of nailing, is considered only the effect of the soil type (or rock) and the method of implementation in determining the bond strength, which results in non-economic design. The other regulations are each of a kind, some of the parameters affecting bond resistance are not taken into account. Therefore, in the present paper, at first the relationships and tables presented by several valid regulations are presented for estimating the ultimate pullout capacity, and then the effect of several important factors affecting on ultimate Pullout capacity are studied. Finally, it was determined, the effect of overburden pressure (in method of injection with pressure), soil dilatation and roughness of the drilling surface on pullout strength is incremental, and effect of degree of soil saturation on pullout strength to a certain degree of saturation is increasing and then decreasing. therefore it is better to get help from nail pullout-strength test results and numerical modeling to evaluate the effect of parameters such as overburden pressure, dilatation, and degree of soil saturation, and so on to reach an optimal and economical design.

Keywords: Soil Nailing, grout, pullout capacity, FHWA

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 335


[1] Wang, Z. G., Richwein, W., 2002, A Study of Soil Interface Friction, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 128(1), PP. 92-94.
[2] Zhang, L. L., Zhang, L. M., Tang, W. H., 2009, Uncertainties of Field Pullout Resistance of Soil Nails, Journal of Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 135, PP. 966-972.
[3] Geotechnical Engineering Office. “Guide to Soil Nail Design and Construction.” Civil Engineering and Development GEOGUIDE 7
[4] Federal Highway Administration Report FHWA A0-IF-03-017. “Soil Nail Walls.” Geotechnical Engineering Circular No.7
[5] Elias, V., Juran, I., 1991, Soil Nailing for Stabilization for Highway Slopes and Excavation, united Stattes Federal Highway Administration, Publication No. FHWA-RD-89-193, June.
[6] GEO, 2008, Guide to Soil Nail Design and Construction, Published by Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. ISBN: 978-962-02-0375-6, GEO Report No. 197.
[7] Jewell, R. A., Pedly, M. J., 1990, Soil Nailing design: The Role of Bending Stiffness, Ground Engineering, 23(2), PP. 30-36.
[8] Schlosser, F., 1982, Behaviour and Design of Soil Nailing, Proceedings on Recent Developments in Ground Improvement Techniques, Bangkok, Thailand, PP. 399-413.
[9] Su, L. J., 2006, Laboratoty Pullout Testing Study on Soil Nails in Compacted Completely Decomposed Granite Fill, Ph.D Thesis, the Hong Kong Poly Technic University.
[10] Su, L. J., Chan, C. F., Shiu, Y. K., Chiu, S. L., Yin, J. H., 2008, Study on the Influence of Overburdeden Pressure on Soil Nail Pullout Resistance in a Compacted Fill, Journal of Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering, ASCE.
[11] Clouterre, 1991, French National Reasearch Project Clouterre-Recommendations 1991, English Translation, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-SA-93-026, Washington D.C., USA.
[12] Chu, L. M., Yin, J. H., 2005, A Laboratory Device to Test the Pull-out Behavior of Soil Nails, ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 28, No. 5, PP. 1-15.
[13] Pradhan, B., 2003, Study of Pullout Behaviour of Soil Nails in Completely Decomposed Granite Fill, M. Phil Thesis, The University of Hong Kong.
[14] Su, L. J., Chan, T. C. F., Shiu, Y. K., Cheung, T., Yin, J.H., 2007, Influence of Degree of Saturation on Soil Nail Pullout Resistance in Compacted Completely Decomposed Granite Fill, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 44, PP. 11, PP. 1314-1428.
[15] William Cheang. (2007).” Static pull-out behaviour of soil nails in residual soil”. P. H. D Thesis, Natioanal University of Singapore.
[16] Franzén, G., 1998, Soil Nailing–A Laboratory and Field Study of Pullout Capacity, Ph.D Thesis, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
[17] Cartier, G., Gigan, J.P., 1983, Experiments and Observations on Soil Nailing Structures, Proceedings of Enropeam Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Helsinki, PP. 473-476.
[18] Yeung, A. T., Cheng, Y. M., Lau, C. K., Mak, L. M., Yu, R. S. M., Choi, Y. K., Kim, J. H., 2005, An Innovative Korean System of Pressure-Grouted Soil Nailing as Slope Stabilization Measure, The Proceedings of the HKIE Geotechnical Division 25th Anuual Seminar, Hong Kong, PP. 43-49.
[19] Yin, J. H., Su, L. J., Cheung, R. W. M., Tang, C., 2008, The Influence of Grouting Pressure on the Pullout Resistance of Soil Nail in Completely Compacted Decomposed Granite Fill.
[20] Milligan, G. W. E, Tei, K. 1998, The Pullout Resistance of Soil Nails, Soil and Foundation, Vol. 38, No. 2, PP. 179-199.