Effective Planning of Public Transportation Systems: A Decision Support Application
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32919
Effective Planning of Public Transportation Systems: A Decision Support Application

Authors: Ferdi Sönmez, Nihal Yorulmaz


Decision making on the true planning of the public transportation systems to serve potential users is a must for metropolitan areas. To take attraction of travelers to projected modes of transport, adequately fair overall travel times should be provided. In this fashion, other benefits such as lower traffic congestion, road safety and lower noise and atmospheric pollution may be earned. The congestion which comes with increasing demand of public transportation is becoming a part of our lives and making residents’ life difficult. Hence, regulations should be done to reduce this congestion. To provide a constructive and balanced regulation in public transportation systems, right stations should be located in right places. In this study, it is aimed to design and implement a Decision Support System (DSS) Application to determine the optimal bus stop places for public transport in Istanbul which is one of the biggest and oldest cities in the world. Required information is gathered from IETT (Istanbul Electricity, Tram and Tunnel) Enterprises which manages all public transportation services in Istanbul Metropolitan Area. By using the most real-like values, cost assignments are made. The cost is calculated with the help of equations produced by bi-level optimization model. For this study, 300 buses, 300 drivers, 10 lines and 110 stops are used. The user cost of each station and the operator cost taken place in lines are calculated. Some components like cost, security and noise pollution are considered as significant factors affecting the solution of set covering problem which is mentioned for identifying and locating the minimum number of possible bus stops. Preliminary research and model development for this study refers to previously published article of the corresponding author. Model results are represented with the intent of decision support to the specialists on locating stops effectively.

Keywords: User cost, bi-level optimization model, decision support, operator cost, transportation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2021891

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 706


[1] Ibeas, Á., Alonso, B., Sainz, O. Optimizing Bus Stop Spacing in Urban Areas. Transportation Research Part E, 46, pp. 446-458, 2010.
[2] Sönmez, F. (2015). Optimizing Bus Lines in Urban Public Transportation by Cost and Trip Calculation Methods: A Software Model Design. International Journal of Electronics, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, 5(3), pp.969-977, Doi: 10.17932/ IAU.IJEMME.m.21460604.2015.5/ 3.969-977
[3] Bowerman, G., Hall, B., Calamai, P. A multi-objective optimization approach to school bus routing problems. Transportation Research Part A 28 (5), pp.107–123, 1995.
[4] Ceder, A., Wilson, N.H.M. Bus network design. Transportation Research Part B 20, pp.331–334, 1986.
[5] Ceder, A., Prashker, J.N., Stern, J.I. An algorithm to evaluate public transportation for minimizing passenger walking distance. Applied Mathematical Modeling, 7(1), pp.19-24, 1983.
[6] Ceder, A. Bus frequency determination using passenger count data. Transportation Research Part A, 18, pp.439–453, 1984.
[7] Chriqui, C., Robilland, P. Common bus lines. Transportation Science, 9, pp.115–121, 1975.
[8] De Cea, J., Fernandez, J.E. Transit assignment for congested public transport systems: an equilibrium model. Transportation Science, 27, pp.133–147, 1993.
[9] dell’Olio, L., Ibeas, A., Moura, J.L. A bi-level mathematical programming model to locate bus stops and optimize frequencies. Journal of Transportation Research Board, 1971, pp. 23–31, 2006.
[10] Bard, J.F. Practical Bilevel Programming: Algorithms and Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht., 1998.
[11] Gleason, J.M. Set covering approach to the location of Express bus stops. Omega 3, 605-608, 1973.
[12] Kraft, W.H., Boardman T.J. Location of bus stops. Journal of tramsportation engineering 98 (TE1), pp.103-116, 1972.
[13] Räsänen, M. Functionality of a bus stop at exit or merging lanes and its impact on driver bahavior. Traffic Engineering and Control, 47 (1), pp. 29-32, 2006.
[14] Üçer, F. Ulusal karayolu sisteminin ağ güvenilirliği yaklaşımı ile incelenmesi. PhD Thesis. Balıkesir University, Civil Engineering, 2009.
[15] Cea, J.D., Fernández, J.E., Dekock, V., Soto, A. Solving network equilibrium problems on multimodal urban transportation networks with multiple user classes. Transport Reviews, 25(3), pp.293-317, 2005.
[16] Farahani, R.Z., Miandoabchi, E., Szeto, W.Y., Rashidi, H. A review of urban transportation network design problems, European Journal of Operational Research, 229, 2, pp.281-302, 2013.
[17] Altinkaya, M., & Zontul, M. (2013). Urban bus arrival time prediction: A review of computational models. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), 2(4), 164-169.