Investigating the Role of Community in Heritage Conservation through the Ladder of Citizen Participation Approach: Case Study, Port Said, Egypt
Egypt has countless prestigious buildings and diversity of cultural heritage which are located in many cities. Most of the researchers, archaeologists, stakeholders and governmental bodies are paying more attention to the big cities such as Cairo and Alexandria, due to the country’s centralization nature. However, there are other historic cities that are grossly neglected and in need of emergency conservation. For instance, Port Said which is a former colonial city that was established in nineteenth century located at the edge of the northeast Egyptian coast between the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal. This city is chosen because it presents one of the important Egyptian archaeological sites that archive Egyptian architecture of the 19th and 20th centuries. The historic urban fabric is divided into three main districts; the Arab, the European (Al-Afrang), and Port Fouad. The European district is selected to be the research case study as it has culture diversity, significant buildings, and includes the largest number of the listed heritage buildings in Port Said. Based on questionnaires and interviews, since 2003 several initiative trials have been taken by Alliance Francaise, the National Organization for Urban Harmony (NOUH), some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and few number of community residents to highlight the important city legacy and protect it from being demolished. Unfortunately, the limitation of their participation in decision-making policies is considered a crucial threat facing sustainable heritage conservation. Therefore, encouraging the local community to participate in their architecture heritage conservation would create a self-confident one, capable of making decisions for the city’s future development. This paper aims to investigate the role of the local inhabitants in protecting their buildings heritage through listing the community level of participations twice (2012 and 2018) in preserving their heritage based on the ladder citizen participation approach. Also, it is to encourage community participation in order to promote city architecture conservation, heritage management, and sustainable development. The methodology followed in this empirical research involves using several data assembly methods such as structural observations, questionnaires, interviews, and mental mapping. The questionnaire was distributed among 92 local inhabitants aged 18-60 years. However, the outset of this research at the beginning demonstrated the majority negative attitude, motivation, and confidence of the local inhabitants’ role to safeguard their architectural heritage. Over time, there was a change in the negative attitudes. Therefore, raising public awareness and encouraging community participation by providing them with a real opportunity to take part in the decision-making. This may lead to a positive relationship between the community residents and the built heritage, which is essential for promoting its preservation and sustainable development.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2021845Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Wladika, S. A. Port Said - No Future without the Past Integrated Rehabilitation Concept for the Urban Heritage. Stuttgart: University of Stuttgart, 2015.
 United Nations. Global trends and challenges to sustainable development post-2015. In D. o. Affairs, World Economic and Social Survey (pp. 1-21). UN, 2013.
 Trust, P.G. Historic Urban Environment Conservation Challenges and Priorities for Action. - Meeting report. United States. p. 29, 2010.
 Nasser, N. Planning for urban heritage places: Reconciling conservation, tourism, and sustainable development. Journal of Planning Literature, 467-479, 2003.
 Basiago, A. Economic, social, and environmental sustainability in development theory and urban planning practice. The Environmentalist 19 (pp. 145-161). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
 Han, E.A., & Fang. How to Promote Sustainable Relationships between Heritage Conservation and Community, Based on a Survey. Sustainability, pp. 1-11, 2016.
 García-Hernández, M., Calle-Vaquero, M. d., & Yubero, a. C. Cultural Heritage and Urban Tourism: Historic City Centers under Pressure. Sustainability, pp. 2-19, 2017.
 BIANCA, S. Historic Cities in the 21st Century: Core Values for a Globalizing World. Published in: Managing Historic Cities, World Heritage Papers Series, Vol. 27, pp. 27 – 33, 2010.
 SIMS, D. Egypt’s Desert Dreams – Development or Disaster? The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo (Egypt), 2014.
 ElKerdany, D. Port Said: In D. E. Hebatalla Abouelfadl, Port Said: A Cosmopolitan Heritage under Threat). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 15-33.
 Huber, V. Connecting colonial seas: the ‘international colonisation’ of Port Said and the Suez Canal during and after the First World War. European Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire, 2012, pp. 141-161.
 AWWAD, H. The Port Said Uprising: The Emergence of Regionalism in the Absence of National Unity. Case Analysis. Arab Centre for Research and Policy Studies, 2013.
 Wates, N. (2000). The community planning handbook. UK: European Commission Humanitarian Office.
 Corcoran, M. The Impact of New Media Technologies on Social Interaction in the Household. Ireland: Department Of Sociology, National University of Ireland Maynooth, 2012.
 Qanzu’a, N. E. Promoting Sustainable Urban Regeneration in the Palestinian Traditional Quarters – Case study of Birzeit. University of Dortmund (TU Dortmund), 2013.
 Khaled, Rana, NGOs and activists protest to save the architecture of Port Said (online) available from http://www.egyptindependent.com//news/ngos-and-activists-protest-save-architecture-port-said, retrieved at: 1 July 2018, 2012.
 Mitchell, N., & Mechtild Rossler, P. M. World Heritage Cultural Landscape. UNESCO, 2009.
 Megahed, N. A. Heritage-Based Sustainability in Port Said: Classification of Styles and Future Development. Port Said: International Journal of Architectural Research, 2013.
 Port Said Governorate. The first report of the Conference. Economics of urban and architectural heritage and the future value of buildings is prohibited demolished in Port Said. Port Said, Egypt, 2010.
 Arnstein, S. A Ladder of Citizen Participation, JAIP, 1969, pp. 216-224.
 Theyyan, B. Arnstein's Ladder of Citizen Participation a Critical Discussion. International Journal of Asian Academic Research Associates, 241-247, 2018.
 Doratli, N., & Hoskara, S. A Critical Review on The Revitalization Of Historic Urban Centers On The Mediterranean Islands: A Policy Approach. Rehabimed. Available from: http://www.rehabimed.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Cadres-de-gouvernance.pdf, retrieved at: 5 July 2018, 2010
 European commission. European Sustainable cities Final report. Brussel: Directorate General XI Environment, nuclear safety and civil protection, 1996.