A Survey on MAC Protocols for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is an emerging and very promising technology that has great demand on the access capability of the existing wireless technology. VANETs help improve trafﬁc safety and efficiency. Each vehicle can exchange their information to inform the other vehicles about the current status of the traffic ﬂow or a dangerous situation such as an accident. To achieve these, a reliable and efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol with minimal transmission collisions is required. High speed nodes, absence of infrastructure, variations in topology and their QoS requirements makes it difficult for designing a MAC protocol in vehicular networks. There are several MAC protocols proposed for VANETs to ensure that all the vehicles could send safety messages without collisions by reducing the end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio. This paper gives an overview of the several proposed MAC protocols for VANETs along with their benefits and limitations and presents an overall classification based on their characteristics.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2021765Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 524
 Mohamed Hadded, Paul Muhlethaler, Anis Laouiti, Rachid Zagrouba, Leila Azouz Saidane, “TDMA-based MAC Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks A Survey, Qualitative Analysis and Open Research Issues”, IEEE Communication Surveys and Tutorials, Vol., No., May 2015.
 Jagadeesh Kakarla, S Siva Sathya, “A Survey and Qualitative Analysis of Multi-channel MAC Protocols for VANET “, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 38– No.6, January 2012.
 Hamid Menouar And Fethi Filali, Eurecom Massimiliano Lenardi, Hitachi Europe, “A Survey and Qualitative Analysis Of MAC Protocols For Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Wireless Communications • October 2006.
 Vandana Jayaraj, Hemanth.c, Sangeetha.R.G, “A Survey on Hybrid MAC Protocols for Vehicular Adhoc Networks”, Vehicular Communications 6 (2016) 29–36.
 802.11p-2010, IEEE standard for information technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - local and metropolitan area networks - speciﬁc requirements part 11 : Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) and physical layer (PHY) speciﬁcations amendment 6 : Wireless access in vehicular environments Std., 2010.
 R. Zou, Z. Liu, L. Zhang, and M. Kamil, “A near collision free reservation based mac protocol for vanets,” in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Istanbul, Turkey, Apr. 2014, pp. 1538–1543.
 F. Yu and S. Biswas, “A self-reorganizing mac protocol for intervehicle data transfer applications in vehicular ad hoc networks,” in International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT), Orissa, Dec. 2007, pp. 110–115.
 H. A. Omar, W. Zhuang, and L. Li, “Vemac: A tdma-based mac protocol for reliable broadcast in vanets,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1724–1736, Sep. 2013.
 Y. Weidong, L. Pan, L. Yan, and Z. Hongsong, “Adaptive tdma slot assignment protocol for vehicular ad-hoc networks,” Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11–18, Feb. 2013.
 W. Yang, W. Liu, P. Li, and L. Sun, “Tdma-based control channel access for ieee 802.11p in vanets,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 2014, no. 4, pp. 1–9, Aug. 2014.
 W. Ke, Y. Weidong, L. Pan, and Z. Hongsong, “A decentralized adaptive tdma scheduling strategy for vanet,” in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), Shanghai, China, Apr. 2013, pp. 216–221.
 S. Bharati and W. Zhuang, “Cah-mac: Cooperative adhoc mac for vehicular networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 470–479, Sep. 2013.
 “Performance analysis of cooperative adhoc mac for vehicular networks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), California, USA, Dec. 2012, pp. 5482 – 5487.
 H. Su and X. Zhang, “Clustering-based multichannel mac protocols for Qos provisioning over vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technologyg, vol. 56,no.6, pp.3309–3323, Nov. 2007.
 H. Su, X. Zhang, and H. H. Chen, “Cluster-based multi-channel communications protocols in vehicle ad hoc networks,” IEEE Journals on Wireless Communications, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 44–51, Oct. 2006.
 F. Borgonovo, A. Capone, M. Cesana, and L. Fratta, “Adhoc mac: new mac architecture for ad hoc networks providing efﬁcient and reliable point-to-point and broadcast services,” Wireless Networks, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 359–366, 2004.
 L. Miao, F. Ren, C. Lin, and A. Luo, “A-adhoc: An adaptive realtime distributed mac protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks,” in International Conference on Communications and Networking (ChinaCOM), Xi’an, China, Aug. 2009, pp. 1–6.
 M. Almalag, S. Olariu, and M. Weigle, “Tdma cluster-based mac for vanets (tc-mac),” in International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), San Francisco, California, USA, Jun. 2012, pp. 1–6.
 T. L. Sheu and Y. H. Lin, “A cluster-based tdma system for intervehicle communications,” Journal Of Information Science, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 213–231, Jan. 2014.
 R. Zhang, J. Lee, X. Shen, X. Cheng, L. Yang, and B. Jiao, “A uniﬁed tdma-based scheduling protocol for vehicle-to-infrastructure communications,” in International Conference Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP), Hangzhou, Oct. 2013, pp. 1–6.
 R. Zhang, X. Cheng, L. Yang, X. Shen, and B. Jiao, “A novel centralized tdma-based scheduling protocol for vehicular networks,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–6, Aug. 2014.
 Weijie Guo, Liusheng Huang, Long Chen, Hongli Xu, Jietao Xie, An adaptive collision-free MAC protocol based on TDMA for inter-vehicular communication, in: Proceedings of the Wireless Communications & Signal Processing (WCSP) International Conference, 2012, pp. 1–6.
 N. Chandra Rathore, S. Verma, G.S. Tomar, CMAC: a cluster based MAC protocol for VANETs, in: Proceedings of the Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications (CISIM), International Conference, 2010, pp. 563–568.
 Lin Zhang, Zishan Liu, Rui Zou, Jinjie Guo, Yu Liu, A scalable CSMA and selforganizing TDMA MAC for IEEE 802.11 p/1609x in VANETs, Wirel. Pers. Commun 74 (4) (2014) 1197–1212.
 G.M. Abdalla, M.A. Abu-Rgheff, S.M. Senouci, Space-orthogonal frequency-time medium access control (SOFT MAC) for VANET, in: Proceedings of the Global Information Infrastructure Symposium, GIIS ’09, 2009, pp. 1–8.
 Duc Ngoc, Minh Dang, Hanh Ngoc Dang, VanDung Nguyen, Zaw Htike, Choong Seon Hong, HER-MAC: a hybrid efficient and reliable MAC for vehicular ad hoc networks, in: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA, IEEE, 2014, pp. 186–193.
 VanDung Nguyen, Thant Zin Oo, Pham Chuan, Choong Seon Hong, An efficient time slot acquisition on the hybrid TDMA/CSMA multichannel MAC in VANETs, IEEE Commun. Lett. 20 (5) (2016) 970–973.
 Ning Lu, Yusheng Ji, Fuqiang Liu, Xinhong Wang, A dedicated multi-channel MAC protocol design for VANET with adaptive broadcasting, in: Proceedings of the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, IEEE, 2010, pp. 1–6.
 Lida Rezazade, Hadi S. Aghdasi, Seyed Ali Ghorashi, Maghsoud Abbaspour, A novel STDMA MAC protocol for vehicular ad-hoc networks, in: International Symposium on Computer Networks and Distributed Systems, CNDS, 2011, IEEE, 2011, pp. 148–151.
 Lijuan Cao, Wenjun Xu, Xuehong Lin, Jiaru Lin, A CSMA/TDMA dynamic splitting scheme for MAC protocol in VANETs, in: International Conference on Wireless Communications & Signal Processing (WCSP), 2013, IEEE, 2013, pp. 1–6.
 Juan Luo, Junli Zha, Yi Xiao, Renfa Li, H-Mac: a hybrid MAC protocol for VANET, in: China Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012, pp. 346–356.
 Hang Su, Xi Zhang, Clustering-based multichannel MAC protocols for QoS provisioning over vehicular ad hoc networks, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 56 (6) (2007) 3309–3323.
 Ranran Ding, Qing-An Zeng, A clustering-based multi-channel vehicle-tovehicle (V2V) communication system, in: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks, ICUFN, 2009, pp. 83–88.
 Weijie Guo, Liusheng Huang, ChChen Long, Hongki Xu, Chenglin Miao, R-MAC: risk-aware dynamic MAC protocol for vehicular cooperative collision avoidance system, Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw. 2013 (2013) 14.
 Xu Xie, Benxiong Huang, Shaoshi Yang and Tiejun Lv,” Adaptive Multi-channel MAC protocol for dense VANET with Directional Antennas”, Future Generation Communication IEEE conference,2008.
 Kai Liu, Jinhua Guo, Ning Lu, Fuqiang Liu, “RAMC: A RSU-Assisted Multi-channel Coordination MAC Protocol for VANET”, GLOBECOM Workshops, IEEE 2009.
 Taeoh Kim, SungDae Jung and SangSun Lee,” CMMP: Clustering-Based Multi-Channel MAC Protocol in VANET, Second International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering, IEEE, 2009.