A Geospatial Consumer Marketing Campaign Optimization Strategy: Case of Fuzzy Approach in Nigeria Mobile Market
Authors: Adeolu O. Dairo
Getting the consumer marketing strategy right is a crucial and complex task for firms with a large customer base such as mobile operators in a competitive mobile market. While empirical studies have made efforts to identify key constructs, no geospatial model has been developed to comprehensively assess the viability and interdependency of ground realities regarding the customer, competition, channel and the network quality of mobile operators. With this research, a geo-analytic framework is proposed for strategy formulation and allocation for mobile operators. Firstly, a fuzzy analytic network using a self-organizing feature map clustering technique based on inputs from managers and literature, which depicts the interrelationships amongst ground realities is developed. The model is tested with a mobile operator in the Nigeria mobile market. As a result, a customer-centric geospatial and visualization solution is developed. This provides a consolidated and integrated insight that serves as a transparent, logical and practical guide for strategic, tactical and operational decision making.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1475038Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 655
 Achrol, R. S., & Etzel, M. J. (2003). The structure of reseller goals and performance in marketing channels. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(2), 146–163.
 Anselmi, K. (2000). A brand’s advertising and promotion allocation strategy: The role of the manufacturer’s relationship with distributors as moderated by relative market share. Journal of Business Research, Volume. 48, 113-122.
 ArcGIS. (2016). ArcGIS online help.
[Online] Available at: https://doc.arcgis.com/en/arcgisonline/reference/shapefiles.htm
[Accessed 27 June 2016].
 Archana, R. A., Hegadi, R. S., & Manjunath, T.N. (2012). A study on sampling techniques for data testing. International Journal of Computer Science and Communication. 3(1), 13–16.
 Au, W. H., & Chan, K. C. (2001). Classification with Degree of Membership: A Fuzzy Approach. Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Data mining, 35-42.
 Augen, S. (2004). Bioinformatics in the post-Genomic Era; Genome, Transcriptome, Proteome, and Information-Based Medicine by Addison-Wesley Professional. 1st edition
 Blattberg, R. C., Briesch, R., & Fox, E. J. (1993). How promotion works. Marketing Science, 14 (3).
 Bloch, M., Cox, A., McGinty, J. C., & Quealy, K. (2010). A peek into Netflix queues, The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/01/10/nyregion/20100110-netflix-map.html
 Boland, W. A., & Paul, M. C., & Erickson, L. M., (2011). Children's response to sales promotions and their impact on purchase behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume. 17, 272-279.
 Brandweiner, N. (2012). Gartner outlines mobile services to reach mainstream by 2014. http://www.mycustomer.com/topic/technology/gartner-outlines-mobile-services-reach-mainstream
 Brink, M. P., & Rensburg A. (2017). An approach to improving marketing campaign effectiveness and customer experience using geospatial analytics. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering. Vol 28(2), 95-108.
 Burrough, P.A., (1986). Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resource Assessment. Oxford University Press, New York.
 Chakrabortty R. K., Hossain, M., Azad, H., & Islam, J. (2013). Analyzing the effects of sales promotion and advertising on consumer’s purchase behavior. World Journal of Social Sciences 3(4), 183 – 194.
 Chen, K., Kou, G., & Shang, J. (2013). An analytical decision-making framework to evaluate multiple marketing channels. Industrial Marketing Management.
 Chen, W., Yuan, J., & Li, M. (2012). Application of GIS/GPS in Shanghai Airport Pavement Management System. Procedia Engineering, 29, 2322-2326.
 Cheng, J. M. S., Tsao, S. M., Tsai, W. H., & Tu, H. H. (2007). Will eChannel additions increase the financial performance of the firm? — The evidence from Taiwan. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(1), 50–57.
 Daniel, D. (2007). Five key business intelligence trends you need to know.
[Online] Available at: http://www.cio.com/article/2437743
[Accessed: 24 June 2016].
 Duggal, N. (2007). Retail Location Analysis: A Case Study of Burger King & McDonald's in Portage & Summit Counties, Ohio. Retrieved 12 2014, from Ohio LINK: Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center: https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=kent1196133312&disposition=inline
 ESRI. (2010). ESRI Shapefile technical description: An ESRI white paper.
[Online] Available from: https://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/shapefile.pdf
[Accessed 27 June 2016].
 Google Maps. Available online: http://maps.google.com (accessed on 15 October 2013).
 Guha- Sapir, D., & Santos. I (2012). The economic impacts of natural Disasters, OUP USA, Oxford University Press.
 Hai-ling, G., Liang-qiang, W., & Yong-peng, L. (2011). A GIS-Based Approach for Information Management in Ecotourism Region. Procedia Engineering, 15, 1988-1992.
 Han, J., & Kamber, M. (2006). Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques. Second Edition, Morgan Kaufmann.
 Hanafizadeh, P., & Mirzazadeh, M. (2011). Visualizing market segmentation using self-organizing maps and Fuzzy Delphi method – ADSL market of a telecommunication company. Expert Systems with Applications 38, 198–205.
 Heywood, I., Cornelius, S., & Carver, S. (2011). An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems (Fourth ed.).
 Hsu, T. H., & Yang, T. H. (2000). Application of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in the selection of advertising media. Journal of Management and Systems, 7, 19–39.
 Huang, J., Leng, M., & Liang, L., (2012). Recent developments in dynamic advertising research. European Journal of Operational Research. Volume. 220, 591-609.
 Husson, F., Josse, J. & Lê, S. (2008). FactoMineR: An R package for multivariate analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 25(1),1-18.
 Hwang, S., & Thill, J.C. (2007). Using fuzzy clustering methods delineating urban housing submarkets. In proceedings of the 15th annual ACM international symposium on advances in geographic information systems (ACM).
 Inmon, W.H. (1996). The data warehouse and data mining. Communications of ACM, Volume 9(11), 49-50.
 Islamoglu, A. H. (2008). Pazarlama Yonetimi. Beta Publisher, Istanbul.
 Jarboui, B., Cheikh, M., Siarry, P., & Rebai, A. (2007). Combinatorial Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) for partitional clustering problem. Applied mathematics and computation, 192(2), 337-345.
 Jones, K., & Pearce, M. (1999). The geography of markets: spatial analysis for retailers. Ivey Business Journal, 63 (3), 66-70
 Jones., & Philip, J. (2003). Advertising and promotion. Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications, Volume 3 (1). 18-25.
 Kabadayi, S. (2011). Choosing the right multiple channel system to minimize transaction costs. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(5), 763–773.
 Kiang, M. Y., Hu, M.Y., & Fisher, O.M. (2007). The effect of sample size on the extended self-organizing map network- A market segmentation application. Computational statistics & Data Analysis, 51 (12), 5940-5948.
 Kim, K-J., & Ahn. H. (2008). A recommender system using GA K-means clustering in an online shopping market. Expert systems with Applications 34 (2), 200-1209
 Kimiagari, S., & Montreuil, B. (2013). Clustering Geo-marketing using self-organizing maps: Application to a business venture in natural disaster planning and recovery. International Research Centre on Enterprise networks, logistics and Transport.
 Klir G. J., & Folger T. A. (1998). Fuzzy sets, Uncertainty and information. Prentice Hall.
 Kohonen, T. (2014). MATLAB Implementations and Applications of the Self-Organizing Map. Unigrafia, Helsinki, Finland.
 Kopetz, C. E., Kruglanski, A. W., Arens, Z. G., Etkin, J., & Johnson, H. M. (2011). The dynamics of consumer behavior: A goal systemic perspective. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 22, 208-223.
 Kotler, P. (2009). Marketing management. Pearson Education India.
 Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L., (2006). Marketing Management. Pearson Prentice Hall.
 Kou, R. J., Chang K., Chien, S. Y. (2004). Integration of self-organizing feature maps and genetic-algorithm-based clustering method for market segmentation. Journal of Organizational computing and Electronic Commerce, 14(1), 43-60.
 Kuo. R. J., An, Y. L., Wanj, H.S., & Chung, W.J. (2006). Integration of self-organizing feature maps neural network and genetic k-means algorithm for market segmentation. Expert systems with applications 30, 313-324.
 Lee, J. -G., Kang, M. (2015). Geospatial Big Data: Challenges and Opportunities. Big Data Research 2, 74–81.
 Li, X., Wong, H., & Wu, S. (2012. A fuzzy minimax clustering model and its applications. Information Sciences: An International Journal, Elsevier Science Inc. Volume 186(1), 114-125.
 Liu, Y., Kiang, M., & Brusco, M. (2012). A unified framework for market segmentation and its applications. Expert systems with applications 39, (11), 10292-10302.
 Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J., & Rhind, D.W. (2005). Geographic Information Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons.
 Malhotra, V.K., Kaur, H., Alam, M.A. (2014). An Analysis of Fuzzy Clustering Methods. International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 94(19).
 Mallach, E. G. (1994). Understanding Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems. IRWIN.
 Meeker, M. (2012). KPCB internet trends year-end update. http://www.slideshare.net/kleinerperkins/2012-kpcb-internet-trends-yearend-update
 Michael, A. E., Dawn, G., Gregg, J. K., & Judy E. S. ((2013). Business Decision-Making Using Geospatial Data: A Research Framework and Literature Review. Axioms 3, 10-30.
 Miljković, D. (2017). Brief Review of Self-Organizing Maps, MIPRO 2017/CTS.
 Murry, T. J., Pipino, L. L., & Gigch, J. P. (1985). A pilot study of fuzzy set modification of Delphi. Human Systems Managements, 5, 76–80.
 Musyoka, S. M., Mutyauvyu, S. M., Kiema, J.B., Karanja, F.N., & Siriba, D.N. (2007). Market segmentation using geographic information systems (GIS): A case study of the soft drink industry in Kenya. Marketing Intelligence & Planning.
 Okoli, C., & Pawlowski, S. (2004). The Delphi method as a research tool: An example, design considerations and applications. Information and Management, 42, 15–29.
 Palazon, M., & Ballester, E. D. (2011). The expected benefit as determinant of dealprone consumers’ response to sales promotions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume. 18, 542-547.
 Panayides, P. M. (2007). The impact of organizational learning on relationship orientation, logistics service effectiveness and performance. Industrial Marketing Management 36(1), 68-80. Pearson Education.
 Pebesma, E. J., & Bivand, R. S. (2005). Classes and methods for spatial data in R. R News 5(2), Procedia Engineering, 29, 2322-2326.
 Rujasiri, P., & Chomtee, B. (2009). Comparison of clustering techniques for cluster analysis. Kasetsart J. (Nat.Sci), 43, 378-388.
 Sääksjärvi, M. V., & Talvinen, J. M. (1993). Integration and effectiveness of marketing information systems. European Journal of Marketing. 27(1), 64-79.
 Skidmore, M., & Toya, H. (2002). Do natural disasters promote long run growth? Economic inquiry, 40(4), 664-687
 Smith, W. R. (1956). Product differentiation and market segmentation as alternative marketing strategies. The Journal of Marketing, 2(1), 3-8
 Sorrell, S. M. (2011). The power of apps, in: The 2011 GSMA Mobile World Congress, Feb. 2011, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gfTQUq0mHw
 Suhaibah, A., Uznir, U., Rahman, A. A., Antón, F. F., & Mioc, D. (2016). 3D geomarketing segmentation: A higher spatial dimension planning perspective. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Geomatic and Geospatial Technology (GGT), Vol. 42.
 Supak, S.K., Devine, H.A., Brothers, G.L., Rozier Rich, S., & Shen, W. (2014). An Open Source Web-Mapping System for Tourism Planning and Marketing. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 31, 835-853.
 Tarik, T., Olgun, K. I., & Taylan D. (2014). The Usage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in the Marketing Decision Making Process: A Case Study for Determining Supermarket Locations. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 148, 227 – 235
 Tengand, (2009). A comparison of two types of price discounts in shifting consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. Journal of Business Research. Volume. 62,14-21.
 Tobler, W. (1970). A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Econ. Geogr. 46(2), 234–240.
 Vatsavai, R. R., Ganguly, A., Chandola, V., Stefanidis, A., Klasky, S., & Shekhar, S. (2012). Spatiotemporal data mining in the era of big spatial data: algorithms and applications. Proceedings of 2nd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Analytics for Big Geospatial Data, Redondo Beach, CA,1–10.
 Vavrik, U. & Mazane, J. (1990). A priori and posteriori Market segmentation: Tailoring Automatic Interaction Detection and cluster Analysis for Tourism Marketing. Caliers du Tourisnie. Serie C, No. 62 Aix-en-Provence: Center des Hautes Etudes Touristiques
 Venagopal. V., & Baets, W. (1994). Neural networks and statistical techniques in marketing research: A conceptual comparison. Marketing Intelligence and planning 12 (7), 30-38.
 Vesanto, J., Himberg, J., Alhoniemi, E., & Parhankangas, J. (2000). SOM Toolbox for Matlab 5. SOM toolbox team, Helsinki University of Technology report A57 April.
 Viswanathan, N. K. (2005). GIS in Marketing in Geographic Information Systems in Business. Pick, J. B. (Ed.), Idea Group Inc. Hershey, USA.
 Xia, J. (2004). Library space management: A GIS proposal. Library Hi Tech, 22(4), 375-382.
 Zarandi, F.M., & Razaee, Z. S. (2010). A Fuzzy Clustering Model for Fuzzy Data with Outliers. International Journal of Fuzzy System Applications, Volume 1(2), IGI Global Publishers.