Hybridization and Evaluation of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) to Improve High Yield Varieties in Indonesia
Jatropha curcas L. is one of the crops producing non edible oil which is potential for bio-energy. Jatropha cultivation and development program in Indonesia is facing several problems especially low seed yield resulting in inefficient crop cultivation cost. To cope with the problem, development of high yielding varieties is necessary. Development of varieties to improve seed yield was conducted by hybridization and selection, and resulted in 14 potential genotypes. The yield potential of the 14 genotypes were evaluated and compared with two check varieties. The objective of the evaluation was to find Jatropha hybrids with some characters i.e. productivity higher than check varieties, oil content > 40% and harvesting age ≤ 110 days. Hybridization and individual plant selection were carried out from 2010 to 2014. Evaluation of high yield was conducted in Asembagus experimental station, Situbondo, East Java in three years (2015-2017). The experimental designed was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replication and plot size of 10 m x 8 m. The characters observed were number of capsules per plant, dry seed yield (kg/ha) and seed oil content (%). The results of this experiment indicated that all the hybrids evaluated have higher productivity than check variety IP-3A. There were two superior hybrids i.e. HS-49xSP-65/32 and HS-49xSP-19/28 with highest seed yield per hectare and number of capsules per plant during three years.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1475022Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 678
 A. Syah. Biodiesel Jarak Pagar, Bahan Bakar Alternatif yang Ramah Lingkungan (Biodiesel of Jatropha, environmental friendly of alternative energy). Jakarta: Agromedia Pustaka. 2006, 116 p.
 M. Martin and J. M. Montes. Quantitative genetic parameters of agronomic and quality traits in a global germplasm collection reveal excellent breeding perspectives for Jatropha curcas L. GCB Bioenergy, vol. 7, pp. 1335–1343, 2015.
 I. W. Arolu, M. Y. Rafii, M. M. Hanafi, T. M. M. Mahmud, and M. A. Latif. Molecular characterization of Jatropha curcas germplasm using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers in Peninsular Malaysia. AJCS, vol. 6, no. 12, pp 1666-1673. 2012.
 R. S. Hartati. Persilangan Tanaman Jarak Pagar (Hybridization of Jatropha curcas L.). In Purwati et al. (eds): Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional IV: Akselerasi Inovasi Teknologi Jarak Pagar Menuju Kemandirian Energi. Malang: Surya Pena Gemilang Pub., 2009, pp. 105-113.
 U. G. Akpan, A. Jimoh, and A. D. Mohammed. Extraction, characterization and modification of castor seed oil. (Internet). Accessed on June 5th, 2006 from http://www.ljs.academicdirect.org/A08/43_52.htm.
 H. Sudarmo and R. D. Purwati. Keragaan Beberapa Genotip Harapan Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) di Gunung Kidul (Performance of some promising genotypes of Jatropha curcasL in Gunung Kidul District). In Subiyakto et al. (eds). Prosiding Semiloka Nasional Tanaman Pemanis, Serat, Tembakau, dan Minyak Industri. Puslitbang Perkebunan, Bogor, 2014, pp. 251-257.
 R. D.Purwati, H. Sudarmo, and Djumali. Adaptability of Potential Genotypes of Jatropha curcas L. as Bioenergy Source in Three Locations. Energy Procedia, vol. 65, pp. 317 – 323. 2015.
 Y. P. Wanita and J. Hartono. Pengaruh Tingkat Kemasakan Buah Terhadap Kadar Minyak jarak pagar (Effect of fruit maturity to oil content of Jatropha curcas L.). In Karmawati et al. (eds.) Prosiding Lokakarya II Status Teknologi Tanaman Jarak Pagar Jatropha curcas L. Bogor: Puslitbang Perkebunan, 2007, pp. 177-180.
 B. B. Santoso, B. S. Purwoko, and I. K. D. Jaya. Yield of Jatropha curcas L. accessions of West Nusa Tenggara during five a year production cycle on a degraded agricultural land. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, vol. 1, no. 3. Pp. 123-130. 2014.
 S. Mohapatraand P. K. Panda. Effects of Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Jatropha curcas L. in an Aeric Tropaquept of Eastern India. Not Sci Biol, vol.3, no. 1, pp. 95-100. 2011.
 A. Tikkoo, S.S. Yadav and N. Kaushik. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen and potassium on seed yield and oil content of Jatropha curcasin coarse textured soils of northwest India. Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 134, pp. 142-146.2013
 S. Kumarand S. Singh. Variability assessment of seed traits in Jatropha curcas L. for improvement of oil yield. International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp 8-15. January 2014.