Climate Change and Its Impacts: The Case of Coastal Fishing Communities of the Meghna River in South-Central Bangladesh
The geographical location of Bangladesh makes it one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. Climate-induced phenomena mainly affect the south-central region of Bangladesh (Laxmipur district) where they have begun to occur more frequently. The aim of the study was to identify the hydro-climatic factors that lead to weather-related disasters in the coastal areas and analyse the consequences of these factors on coastal livelihoods, with possible adaptation options using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools. The present study showed several disasters such as land erosion, depressions and cyclones, coastal flooding, storm surge, and precipitation. The frequency of these disasters is of a noticeable rate. Surveys have also discovered that land erosion is ongoing. Tidal water is being introduced directly into the mainland, and as a result of the salt intrusion, production capacity is declining. The coastal belt is an important area for fishing activities, but due to changed fishing times and a lack of Alternative Income Generating Activities (AIGAs), people have been forced to search for alternative livelihood options by taking both short-term and long-term adaptation options. Therefore, in order to increase awareness and minimize the losses, vulnerable communities must be fully incorporated into disaster response strategies. The government as well as national and international donor organizations should come forward and resolve the present situation of these vulnerable groups since otherwise, they will have to endure endless and miserable suffering due to the effects of climate change ahead in their lives.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474924Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Adger, W. Dessai, S. Goulden, M. Hulme, M. Lorenzoni, I. Nelson, D., 2009, ‘Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?’ Climatic Change, 93:335–54.
 Adger, W. N. Arnell, N. W. Tompkins, E. L., 2005, ‘Successful adaptation to climate change across scales,’ Global Environmental Change 15:77–86.
 Ahmed, A. U. & Neelormi, S. 2008, ‘Livelihoods of coastal fishermen in peril: In search of early evidence of climate change induced adverse effects in Bangladesh,’ Dhaka: Centre for Global Change.
 Agrawala, S. Ota, T. Ahmed, A. U. Smith, J. & Van Aalst, M., 2003a, ‘Development and climate change in Bangladesh: Focus on coastal flooding and the Sundarbans,’ Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
 Ahsan, M. R. Khatun, H., 2004, ‘Disaster and silent gender, Contemporary studies in Geography,’ Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
 Allison, E. H. Perry, A. L. Badjeck, M. C. Adger, W. N. Brown, K. Conway, D. Halls, A. S. Pilling, G. M. Reynolds, J. D. Andrew, N. L. & Dulvy, N. K. 2009b, ‘Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries,’ Fish and Fisheries, 10, 173 - 196.
 Adger, W. N. Agrawala, S. Mirza, M. M. Q. Conde, C. O’Brien, K. Pulhin, J. Pulwarty, R. Smit, B. & Takahashi, K., 2007, ‘Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity, In: Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., Vander Linden, P. J. & Hanson, C. E. (eds.) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Brander, K., 2010, ‘Impacts of climate change on fisheries,’ J Mar Syst 79:389–402. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.015.
 Cheung, W. W. L. Lam, V. W. Y. Sarmiento, J. L. Kearney, K. Watson, R. Pauly, D., 2009, ‘Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenario,’ Fish Fish 10:235–251.
 DOF., 2012, ‘National fisheries week 2012’, Dhaka: Department of Fisheries, Government of Bangladesh.
 Drinkwater, K. F. Beaugrand, G. Kaeriyama, M. Kim, S. Ottersen, G. Perry, R. I. Portner, H. O. Polovina, J. J. Takasuka, A., 2010, ‘On the processes linking climate to ecosystem changes,’ J Mar Syst 79:374–388. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.014.
 Dixon, R. K. Smith, J. & Guill, S., 2003, ‘Life on the edge: Vulnerability and adaptation of African ecosystems to global climate change, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 8, 93-113.
 Downing, T. E. Ringius, L. Hulme, M. & Waughray, D., 1997, ‘Adapting to climate change in Africa,’ Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 2, 19-44.
 Eakin, H. & Bojorquez-Tapia, L. A., 2008, ‘Insights into the composition of household vulnerability from multicriteria decision analysis,’ Global Environmental Change, 18, 112-127.
 Haque, C. M., 1997, ‘Atmospheric hazards preparedness in Bangladesh:a study of warning,adjustments and recovery from the april 1991 cyclone,’ Natual hazards,16,181-202.
 Hodgson, R. L. P. and Whaites, A., 1993, ‘The rehabilitation of housing after natural disasters in Bangladesh,’ 374-387, In: Merriman, P. A. and Browitt, C. W. A. (eds). Natural disasters: protecting vulnerable communities.Thomas Telford, London.
 Islam, M. M. Sallu, S. Hubacek, K. Paavola, J.2013, ‘Vulnerability of fishery-based livelihoods to the impacts of climate variability and change: insights from coastal Bangladesh’, Springer. DOI 10.1007/s10113-013-0487-6.
 IPCC., 2007a, ‘Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,’ In: Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., Van Der Linden, P. J. & Hanson, C. E. (eds.). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
 IPCC., 2012, ‘Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation,’ A special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Field CB, Barros, V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner GK, Allen, SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM, editors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Jooley, M. Howes, D. D., 2004, ‘Coastal and sea level changes, storms and floods,’ In: Ahsan M. R., Khatun H., (eds) Disaster and silent gender. Contemporary studies in Geography, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
 Johannessen, O., Miles, M., 2011, ‘Critical vulnerabilities of marine and sea ice–based ecosystems in the high Arctic,’ Reg Environ Chang11:239–248. doi:10.1007/s10113-010-0186-5.
 Jones, L. Boyd, E., 2011, ‘Exploring social barriers to adaptation: insights from western Nepal’, Global Environmental Change; 21:1262–74.
 MRAG., 2011, ‘Fisheries and livelihood’. Fisheries Management Science Programme (FMSP), Marine Resources Assessment Group (MRAG) and Department for International development programme (DFID) London.www.mrag.co.uk/Documents/PolicyBrief4_Livelihoods.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2011.
 Met Office., 2011, ‘Climate: Observations, projections and impacts – Bangladesh’, Met Office Hadley Centre and Department of Energy and Climate Change of the United Kingdom.
 Maplecroft., 2011, ‘Climate change vulnerability index 2012 (Online),’ Maplecroft. Available: http://maplecroft.com/themes/cc/ (Accessed 30 October 2011).
 Martin, A. & Sherington, J., 1997, ‘Participatory research methods, implementation, effectiveness and institutional context,’ Agricultural Systems, 55, 195-216.
 Nicholls, R. J. & Tol, R. S. J., 2006, ‘Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: A global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 364, 1073-1095.
 Paavola, J., 2008, ‘Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania,’ Environmental Science and Policy, 11, 642-654.
 Pittock, A. B. and Father, R. A., 1993, ‘Severe tropical storms and storm surge,’ In: Warrick, R. A., Barrow, E. M., and Wigey, T. M., (eds) Cimate and sea eve change: Observations, projections and Impications. Cambridge university press, 192-212.
 Raper, S. C. B., 1993, ‘Obserevationa data on the relationships between climatic change and trhe frequency and magnitude of severe tropica storms’, In: Warrick, R. A., Barrow, E. M., and Wigey, T. M., (eds) Cimate and sea eve change: Observations, projections and Impications. Cambridge university press, 192-212.
 Rashid, S. F. and Michaud, S., 2000, ‘Female adolescents and their sexuality: notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution during the floods’, Disasters, 24, (1), 54-70.
 Sissoko, K. Van Keulen, H. Verhagen, J. Tekken, V. & Battaglini, A., 2011, ‘Agriculture, livelihoods and climate change in the West African Sahel’, Regional Environmental Change, 11, 119-125.
 Schmuck, H., 2000, ’An act of Allah’: religious explanations for floods in Bangladesh as survival strategy,’ International journal of Mass Emergency and Disasters,18(1)85-95.
 Smit, B. Skinner, M. W., 2002, ‘Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology,’ Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 7:85–114.
 World bank., 2013a, ‘Turn down the heat: Climate extremes, regional impacts, and the case for resilience’, A report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics. Washington DC: World Bank.
 Westlund, L. Poulain, F. Bage, H. & Van Anrooy, R., 2007, ‘Disaster response and risk management in the fisheries sector’, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
 Yu, J. Wang, Y. & Hamilton, K., 2010a, ‘Response of tropical cyclone potential intensity to a global warming scenario in the IPCC AR4 CGCMs’, Journal of Climate, 23, 1354-1373.