Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32722
Gender Differences in E-Society: The Case of Slovenia

Authors: Mitja Dečman


The ever-increasing presence and use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences the different social relationships of today's society. Gender differences are especially important from the viewpoint of modern society since ICT can either deepen the existing inequalities or diminish them. In a developed Western world, gender equality has been a well-focused area for decades in many parts of society including education, employment or politics and has led to a decrease in the inequality of women and men in these and other areas. The area of digital equality, or inequality for that matter, is one of the areas where gender differences still exist in many countries of the world. The research presented in this paper focuses on Slovenia, one of the smallest EU member states, being an average achiever in the area of e-society according to the many different European benchmarking indexes. On the other hand, Slovenia is working in an alignment with many European gender equality guidelines and showing good results. The results of our research are based on the analysis of survey data from 2014 to 2017 dealing with Slovenian citizens and their households and the use of ICT. Considering gender issues, the synthesis showed that cultural differences influence some measured ICT indicators but on the other hand the differences are low and only sometimes statistically significant.

Keywords: Digital divide, e-society, gender inequality, Slovenia.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 700


[1] A. Edelstein, J. Bowes, and S. Harsel, Eds., Information Societies: Comparing the Japanese and American Experiences. Seattle: School of Communications, University of Washington, 1978.
[2] M. Bangemann and others, “Recommendations to the European Council: Europe and the global information society”, Brussels: European Commission, 1994.
[3] OECD, OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society 2011. OECD Publishing, 2011.
[4] F. Webster, Theories of the Information Society. New York, USA: Routledge, 2014.
[5] J. L. Salvaggio, The Information Society: Economic, Social, and Structural Issues. Routledge, 2013.
[6] L. Yu, “The divided views of the information and digital divides: A call for integrative theories of information inequality”, Journal of Information Science, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 660–679, Dec. 2011.
[7] K. Andreasson, Digital Divides: The New Challenges and Opportunities of e-Inclusion. CRC Press, 2015.
[8] J. Servaes and T. Oyedemi, Social Inequalities, Media, and Communication: Theory and Roots. Lanham, USA: Lexington Books, 2016.
[9] C. Sparks, “What is the “Digital Divide” and why is it Important?”, Javnost - The Public, vol. 20, pp. 27–46, 2013.
[10] F. Suwana, “Empowering Indonesian women through building digital media literacy”, Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 212–217, Sep. 2017.
[11] OECD, The Economic Impact of ICT Measurement, Evidence and Implications. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2010.
[12] G. Misuraca, C. Codagnone, and P. Rossel, “From Practice to Theory and back to Practice: Reflexivity in Measurement and Evaluation for Evidence-based Policy Making in the Information Society”, Government Information Quarterly, vol. 30, Supplement 1, pp. S68–S82, Jan. 2013.
[13] D. J. Gunkel, “Second thoughts: toward a critique of the digital divide”, New media & society, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 499–522, 2003.
[14] A. J. Van Deursen, E. J. Helsper, and R. Eynon, “Development and validation of the Internet Skills Scale (ISS)”, Information, Communication & Society, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 804–823, 2016.
[15] I. Rodríguez-de-Dios, J. M. van Oosten, and J.-J. Igartua, “A study of the relationship between parental mediation and adolescents” digital skills, online risks and online opportunities”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 82, pp. 186–198, 2018.
[16] J. van Dijk, The deepening divide: Inequality in the information society. Sage Publications, 2005.
[17] EUROSTAT, “Gender statistics”, 2018. (Online). Available: (Accessed: 06-May-2018).
[18] O. Rowntree, “Connected Women The Mobile Gender Gap Report 2018”. GSMA, 2018.
[19] M. Hilbert, “Digital gender divide or technologically empowered women in developing countries? A typical case of lies, damned lies, and statistics”, Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 479–489, Nov. 2011.
[20] M. Sáinz, J. Meneses, B.-S. López, and S. Fàbregues, “Gender Stereotypes and Attitudes towards Information and Communication Technology Professionals in a Sample of Spanish Secondary Students”, Sex Roles, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 154–168, Feb. 2016.
[21] N. Mumporeze and M. Prieler, “Gender digital divide in Rwanda: A qualitative analysis of socioeconomic factors”, Telematics and Informatics, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1285–1293, Nov. 2017.
[22] T. Drabowicz, “Gender and digital usage inequality among adolescents: A comparative study of 39 countries”, Computers & Education, vol. 74, pp. 98–111, May 2014.
[23] J. van Dijk, “The Evolution of the Digital Divide”, in Digital Enlightenment Yearbook 2012, IOS Press, 2012.
[24] Agency for communication networks and services of the Republic of Slovenia, “The 4th quarter 2017: the report on the development of electronic communication market”. 2018.
[25] World Economic Forum, “Global Information Technology Report 2016 - Reports - World Economic Forum”. 2016.
[26] European Commission, “The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI)”, The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), 2018. (Online). Available: (Accessed: 08-Dec-2018).
[27] EUROSTAT, “Gender pay gap statistics”, 2018. (Online). Available: (Accessed: 06-Jun-2018).
[28] World Economic Forum, “The Global Gender Gap Report 017”. 2017.
[29] M. Hollander and D. A. Wolfe, Nonparametric Statistical Methods, 2 edition. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1999.
[30] European Commission, “Individuals who are frequent internet users (every day or almost every day), by Females, 16 to 74 years old”, Digital Agenda Scoreboard key indicators, 2018. (Online). Available:{%22indicator-group%22:%22mobile%22,%22indicator%22:%22i_iu3g%22,%22breakdown%22:%22IND_TOTAL%22,%22unit-measure%22:%22pc_ind_iu3%22,%22ref-area%22:(%22EU28%22,%22SI%22)}.
[31] S. R. Cotten, D. B. Shank, and W. A. Andersonc, “Gender, technology use and ownership, and media-based multitasking among middle school students”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 35, pp. 99–106, Jun. 2014.
[32] R. Junco, “Inequalities in Facebook use”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 2328–2336, Nov. 2013.
[33] European Commission, “Women in the Digital Age”. 2018.
[34] G. Fowlie and P. Biggs, “The Digital Broadband and Gender Divides”, in Digital Divides: The New Challenges and Opportunities of e-Inclusion, K. Andreasson, Ed. CRC Press, 2015, pp. 27–42.