The Current Practices of Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Panels Subjected to Blast Loading
For any country in the world, it has become a priority to protect the critical infrastructure from looming risks of terrorism. In any infrastructure system, the structural elements like lower floors, exterior columns, walls etc. are key elements which are the most susceptible to damage due to blast load. The present study revisits the state of art review of the design and analysis of reinforced concrete panels subjected to blast loading. Various aspects in association with blast loading on structure, i.e. estimation of blast load, experimental works carried out previously, the numerical simulation tools, various material models, etc. are considered for exploring the current practices adopted worldwide. Discussion on various parametric studies to investigate the effect of reinforcement ratios, thickness of slab, different charge weight and standoff distance is also made. It was observed that for the simulation of blast load, CONWEP blast function or equivalent numerical equations were successfully employed by many researchers. The study of literature indicates that the researches were carried out using experimental works and numerical simulation using well known generalized finite element methods, i.e. LS-DYNA, ABAQUS, AUTODYN. Many researchers recommended to use concrete damage model to represent concrete and plastic kinematic material model to represent steel under action of blast loads for most of the numerical simulations. Most of the studies reveal that the increase reinforcement ratio, thickness of slab, standoff distance was resulted in better blast resistance performance of reinforced concrete panel. The study summarizes the various research results and appends the present state of knowledge for the structures exposed to blast loading.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474843Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 706
 Y. E. Ibrahim, M. A. Ismail & M. Nabil, “Response of reinforced concrete frame structures under blast loading,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 171, pp. 890-898, 2017.
 A. Ullah, A. Furqan, H. Jang, S. Kim and J. Hong, “Review of analytical and empirical estimation for incident blast pressure,” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2016), vol. 21, issue 6, pp. 2211-2225, September 2017.
 N. Krishnappa, M. Bruneau and G. P. Warn, “Weak-axis behavior of wide flange columns subjected to blast,” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 140, issue 5, pp. 0401308-1-0401308-9, May 2014.
 G. B. Maranan, A. C. Manalo, B. B. Benmokrane, W. Karunasena and P. Mendis, “Behavior of concentrically loaded geopolymer-concrete circular columns reinforced longitudinally and transversely with GFRP bars,” Engineering Structures, vol. 117, pp. 422-436, March 2016.
 Z. Ruan, L. Chen and Q. Fang, “Numerical investigation into dynamic responses of RC columns subjected for fire and blast”, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. 34, pp. 10-21, January 2015.
 M. P. Rutner and D. A. Vaccari., “Preliminary and time efficient vulnerability assessment of structural columns subjected to blast loading,” Engineering Structures, vol. 128, pp. 55-66, September 2016.
 M. EISayed, W. El-Dakhakhni and M. Tait, “Response evaluation of reinforced concrete block structural walls subjected to blast loading,” Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 141, issue 11, pp. 04015043-1-04015043-13, March 2015.
 UFC 3-340-02, Structures to Resist the effects of Accidental Explosions, US Department of Army, Navy and Air force, Washington DC, 2008.
 ASCE Task Committee on Blast Resistant Design, Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities, American society of civil engineers, N.Y., 1997.
 T. Ngo, P. Mendis, A. Gupta and J. Ramsay, “Blast loading and Blast Effects on Structures-An Overview,” Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, Special Issue: Loading on Structures, pp. 76-91.
 H. L. Brode, “Numerical solutions of spherical blast waves,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 26, pp. 766-774, 1995.
 N. M. Newmark and R. J. Hansen, Design of Blast Resistant Structures, Shock and Vibration Handbook, Vol. 3, Eds. Harris and Crede, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1961.
 Mills C. A., “The Design of concrete structure to resist explosions and weapon effects,” Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Concrete for Hazard Protections, Edinburgh, UK ,1987, pp. 61-73.
 D. Cormie and C. Mays and P. Smith, Blast effects on building 2nd Edition, Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 2009.
 P. Kusumaningrum, Numerical modeling of RC and ECC encased RC columns subjected to close in explosion, Ph. D thesis, National University of Singapore, 2010.
 UFC 3-340-01, Design and analysis of hardened structures to conventional weapons effects, US Department of Army, Navy and Air force, Washington DC, June 2002.
 UFC 3-340-03AN, Weapons effects: designing facilities to resist nuclear weapon effects, US Department of Army, Navy and Air force, Washington DC, March 2005.
 BS EN 1991-1-7, Eurocode 1- Actions on structures, Part 1-7: General actions-Accidental actions, British Standard 2006.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Reference manual to mitigate potential terrorist attacks against building, Report no. 426, Washington DC: FEMA, December 2003.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Primer for design of commercial buildings to mitigate terrorist attacks, Report no. 427, Washington DC: FEMA, December 2003.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Risk assessment, a how to guide to mitigate potential terrorist attacks against buildings, Report no. 452, Washington DC: FEMA, January 2005.
 IS: 4991 – 1968, Criteria for Blast Resistant Design of Structures for Explosions Above Ground, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1993.
 IS: 6922 – 1973, Criteria For Safety and Design of Structures Subjected To Underground Blasts, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1997.
 S. A. Kilic, “Numerical study on the uplift response of RC slabs subjected to blasts,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, pp. 04016105-1-04016105-9,2016.
 J. Li, C. Wu, H. Hao and Y. Su, “Experimental and numerical study on a steel wire mesh reinforced concrete slab under contact explosion,” Materials and Design, vol. 116, pp. 77-91, 2016.
 Li, C. Wu, H. Hao, Z. Wang and Y. Su, “Experimental investigation of ultra-high performance concrete slabs under contact explosions,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 93, pp. 62-75, 2016.
 M. Ona, G. Morales-Alonso, V. Sanchez-Galvez and D. Cendon, “Analysis of concrete targets with different kinds of reinforcement subjected to blast loading,” The European Physical Journal, Special Topics, pp. -1-18, 2016.
 D. Yan., S. Chen, G. Chen and J. Baird, “Static and dynamic behavior of concrete slabs reinforced with chemically reactive enamel-coated steel bars and fibers,” Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), vol. 17, issue 5, pp. -366-377, 2016.
 S. Yao, D. Zhang, X. Chen, F. Lu and W. Wang, “Experimental and numerical study on the dynamic response of RC slabs under blast loading,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 66, pp. 120-129, 2016.
 J. Li, C. Wu and H. Hao, “Investigation of ultra-high performance concrete slab and normal strength concrete slab under contact explosion,” Engineering Structures, vol. 102, pp. 395-408, 2015.
 J. Li, C. Wu and H. Hao, “An experimental and numerical study of reinforced ultra-high performance concrete slabs under blast loads,” Materials & Design, vol. 82, pp.- 64-76, 2015.
 G. Thiagarajan, A. Kadambi, S. Robert and C. Johnson, “Experimental and finite element analysis of doubly reinforced concrete slabs subjected to blast loads,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 78, pp. 162-173, 2015.
 L. Mao, S. Barnett, D. Begg, G. Schleyer and G. Wight, “Numerical simulation of ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete panel subjected to blast loading,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 64, pp. 91-100, 2014.
 A. Stolz, K. Fischer, C. Roller and S. Hauser S., “Dynamic bearing capacity of ductile concrete plates under blast loading,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 69, pp. 25-38, 2014.
 Y. Xia, C. Wu and Z. Li, “Optimized design of foam cladding for protection of reinforced concrete members under blast loading,” Journal of Structural Engineering, pp. 06014010-1-7, 2014.
 D. Kakogiannis, F. Pascualena, B. Reymen, L. Pyl., J. M. Ndambi, E. Segers, D. Lecompte, J. Vantomme and T. Kramuthammer, “Blast performance of reinforced concrete hollow core slabs in combination with fire: Numerical and experimental assessment,” Fire Safety Journal, vol. 57, pp. – 69-82, 2013.
 S. L Orton, V. P. Chiarito, J. K. Minor and T. G. Coleman, “Experimental testing of CFRP- Strengthened reinforced concrete slab elements loaded by close-in blast,” Journal of Structural Engineering, pp. 04013060-1-9, 2013.
 W. Wang, D. Zhang, F. Lu, S. Wang and F. Tang, “Experimental study and numerical simulation of the damage mode of a square reinforced concrete slab under close-in explosion,” Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 27(2013), pp. 41-51, 2013.
 C. Zhao and J. Chen, “Damage mechanism and mode of square reinforced concrete slab subjected to blast loading,” Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, vol. 63-64, pp. 54-62, 2013.
 Y. Alostaz, P. Hoffmann, P. Feenstra and J. Thomas, “Innovative material for protection of reinforced concrete structures against close range detonation”, Structural Congress, pp. 12-22, 2012.
 W. Wang, D. Zhang, F. Lu, S. Wang and F. Tang, “Experimental study on scaling the explosion resistance of a one way square reinforced concrete slab under a close-in blast loading,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 49, pp. 158-164, 2012.
 J. Ha, N. Yi, J Choi and J. Kim, “Experimental study on hybrid CFRP-PU strengthening effect on RC panels under blast loading,” Composite Structures, vol. 93, pp. -2070-2082, 2011.
 A. A. Mutalib and H. Hao, “Numerical analysis of FRP-composite-strengthened RC Panels with anchorages against blast loads, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities,” vol. 25, issue 5, pp. 360-372, 2011.
 Y. Tai, T. Chu, H. Hu and J. Wu, “Dynamic response of a reinforced concrete slab subjected to air blast load,” Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, vol. 56, pp. 140-147, 2011.
 C. Wu, L. Huang and D. J. Oehlers, “Blast testing of aluminium foam- protected reinforced concrete slabs,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol. 25, issue no 5, pp. 464-474, 2011.
 Z. L. Wang, H. Konietzkey and R. Y. Huang, “Elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic analysis of crater blasting in steel fiber reinforced concrete,” Theoretical and Applied Facture Mechanics, vol. 52, pp. 111-116, 2009.
 C. Wu and H. Hao, “Modeling of simultaneous ground shock and air blast pressure on nearby structures from surface explosions,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 31, issue 6, pp. 699 -717, 2005.
 M. Foglar, R Hajek, M. Kovar and J. Stoller, “Blast performance of RC panels with waste steel fibres,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 94, pp. 536-546, 2015.
 A. Kaikea, D. Achoura, F. Duplan and L. Rizzuti L., “Effect of mineral admixtures and steel fiber volume contents on the behavior of high performance fiber reinforced concrete,” Materials and Design, vol. 63, pp. 493-499, 2014.
 C. M. Morison, “Dynamic response of walls and slabs by single-degree-of-freedom analysis- a critical review and revision”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 32, pp. 1214-1247, 2006.
 J. M. Nickerson, P. A. Trasborg, C. J. Naito, C. M. Newberry and J. S. Davidson, “Finite element assessment of methods for incorporating axial load effects into blast design SDOF analysis of precast wall panels,” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol. 29, no 5, pp. B4014006-1-11, 2015.