Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32583
Designing a Pre-Assessment Tool to Support the Achievement of Green Building Certifications

Authors: Jisun Mo, Paola Boarin


The impact of common buildings on climate and environment has prompted people to get involved in the green building standards aimed at implementing rating tools or certifications. Thus, green building rating systems were introduced to the construction industry, and the demand for certified green buildings has increased gradually and succeeded considerably in enhancing people’s environmental awareness. However, the existing certification process has been unsatisfactory in attracting stakeholders and/or professionals who are actively engaged in adopting a rating system. It is because they have faced recurring barriers regarding limited information in understanding the rating process, time-consuming procedures and higher costs, which have a direct influence on pursuing green building rating systems. To promote the achievement of green building certifications within the building industry more successfully, this paper aims at designing a Pre-Assessment Tool (PAT) framework that can help stakeholders and/or professionals engaged in the construction industry to clarify their basic knowledge, timeframe and extra costs needed to activate a green building certification. First, taking the first steps towards the rating tool seems to be complicated because of upfront commitment to understanding the overall rating procedure is required. This conceptual PAT framework can increase basic knowledge of the rating tool and the certification process, mainly in terms of all resources or information of each credit requirements. Second, the assessment process of rating tools is generally known as a “lengthy and time-consuming system”, contributing to unenthusiastic reactions concerning green building projects. The proposed framework can predict the timeframe needed to identify how long it will take for a green project to process each credit requirement and the documentation required from the beginning of the certification process to final approval. Finally, most people often have the initial perception that pursuing green building certification costs more than constructing a non-green building, which makes it more difficult to execute rating tools. To overcome this issue, this PAT will help users to estimate the extra expenses such as certification fees and third-party contributions based on the track of the amount of time it takes to implement the rating tool throughout all the related stages. Also, it can prevent unexpected or hidden costs occurring in the process of assessment. Therefore, this proposed PAT framework can be recommended as an effective method to support the decision-making of inexperienced users and play an important role in promoting green building certification.

Keywords: Barriers, certification process, green building rating systems, pre-assessment tool.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 754


[1] Roodman, D. M., & Lenssen, N. (1995). A building revolution: How ecology and health concerns are transforming construction.
[2] Kirby, A. (2008). Kick the habit: a UN guide to climate neutrality. Ecosystems. UNEP. Retrieved from (last accessed 28.05.2018).
[3] IEA. (2008). World Energy Outlook 2008. International Energy Agency, Paris, France (Vol. 23). International Energy Agency (IEA). Retrieved from (last accessed 28.05.2018).
[4] Ade, R. (2011). The impact of green building certifications on the cost of construction in New Zealand. The University of Auckland.
[5] Smith, J. (2008). Implementation of a Building Sustainability Rating Tool: A Survey of New Zealand. P.21, Victoria University of Wellington. Victoria University of Wellington.
[6] Kibert, C. J. (2013). Sustainable construction: Green building design and delivery (3rd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[7] Wong, J. K. W., & Zhou, J. (2015). Enhancing environmental sustainability over building life cycles through green BIM: A review. Automation in Construction, 57, 156–165.
[8] Jensen, J. O., & Elle, M. (2007). Exploring the use of tools for urban sustainability in European cities. Indoor and Built Environment, 16(3), 235–247.
[9] Roberts, P. (2006). Evaluating regional sustainable development: Approaches, methods and the politics of analysis. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 49(4), 515–532.
[10] Cole, R. J. (2011). Motivating stakeholders to deliver environmental change. Building Research and Information, 39(5), 431–435.
[11] Domingo, N., & Wilkinson, S. (Eds.). (2016). 6th International Conference on Building Resilience. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Building Resilience held at Auckland, New Zealand 7th - 9th September 2016 (pp. 1–1112). Massey University and The University of Auckland. Retrieved from
[12] Chaudhary, M., & Piracha, A. (2015). Examining the role of structural engineers in green building ratings and sustainable development. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 7982, 217–228.
[13] Rodriguez-Nikl, T., Kelley, J., Xiao, Q., Hammer, K., & Tilt, B. (2015). Structural Engineers and Sustainability: An Opinion Survey. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 141(3), 4014011.
[14] Wu, P., & Low, S. P. (2010). Project management and green buildings: Lessons from the rating systems. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 136(2), 64–70. CE.
[15] Perrett, G. A. (2011). The Key Drivers and Barriers to the Sustainable Development of Commercial Property in New Zealand. Lincoln University. Retrieved from
[16] Byrd, H., & Leardini, P. (2011). Green buildings: Issues for New Zealand. Procedia Engineering, 21(2011), 481–488.
[17] Robichaud, L., & Anantatmula, V. (2010). Greening project management practices for sustainable construction. Journal of Management in Engineering, 27(1), 48–57.
[18] WGBC. (2013). The business case for green building: A review of the costs and benefits for developers, investors and occupants. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2018).
[19] Darko, A., & Chan, A. P. C. (2017). Review of Barriers to Green Building Adoption. Sustainable Development, 25(3), 167–179.
[20] Ahn YH, Pearce AR, Wang Y, Wang G. 2013. Drivers and barriers of sustainable design and construction: the perception of green building experience. Int J Sustain Build Technol Urban Dev. 4:35–45.
[21] Krups, M., Krups, R., Berning, P., Smith, D., Kheng, S. (2014). Green Building Market Report South East Asia 2014. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2018).
[22] Darko, A., Chan, A. P. C., Owusu, E. K., & Antiwi-Afri, M. F. (2018). Benefits of Green Building: A Literature Review. In Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Parliament Square. RICS COBRA 2018, RICS HQ, London, UK, 23 – 24 April 2018. ISBN: 978-1-78321-270-5.
[23] Bond, S. (2011). Barriers and drivers to green buildings in Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 29(4/5), 494–509.
[24] Markelj, J., Kuzman, M. K., Grošelj, P., & Zbašnik-Senegačnik, M. (2014). A simplified method for evaluating building sustainability in the early design phase for architects. Sustainability (Switzerland), 6(12), 8775–8795.
[25] DBH. (2007). Building for the 21st Century - Report on the Review of the Building Code, 1–86. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2018).
[26] NZGBC. (2017a). A policy plan for the built environment. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2017).
[27] BRANZ. (2015). Levy in action 2017/2018. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2018).
[28] Yusoff, W. Z. W., & Wen, W. R. (2014). Analysis of the International Sustainable Building Rating Systems (SBRSs) for Sustainable Development with Special Focused on Green Building Index (GBI) Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Conservation Research, 2(1), 11.
[29] Park, J. S., & Yoon, C. H. (2011). The effects of outdoor air supply rate on work performance during 8-h work period. Indoor Air, 21(4), 284–290.
[30] Ang, S. L., & Wilkinson, S. J. (2008). Is the social agenda driving sustainable property development in Melbourne, Australia? Property Management, 26(5), 331–343.
[31] Hargreaves, R. (2005). Compendium and Evaluation of Building Environmental Impact Schemes Being Used in Australasia (Vol. 135).
[32] Samari, M., Godrati, N., Esmaeilifar, R., Olfat, P., & Shafiei, M. W. M. (2013). The investigation of the barriers in developing green building in Malaysia. Modern Applied Science, 7(2), 1–10.
[33] Geng, Y., Dong, H., Xue, B., & Fu, J. (2012). An Overview of Chinese Green Building Standards. Sustainable Development, 20(3), 211–221.
[34] Bandy, R., Danckaert, C., Fetscher, G., Holmes, B., Gale, M., Mirsky, M., Purkert, F., Stewart, S. (2007). Leed in upstate New York an exploration of barriers, resources and strategies (EPA region). USGBC New York Upstate chapter and environment finance center: Maxwell capstone project.
[35] Kubba, S. (2017). Chapter 2. Components of Sustainable Design and Construction. In Handbook of Green Building Design and Construction: LEED, BREEAM, and Green Globes (pp. 55–110). Joe Hayton.
[36] Pottelsberghe, V. B., Nysten, S., & Megally, E. (2003). Evaluation of current fiscal incentives for business R&D in Belgium. Retrieved from
[37] Olubunmi, O. A., Xia, P. B., & Skitmore, M. (2016). Green building incentives: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1611–1621.
[38] Hashim, S. Z., Zakaria, I. B., Ahzahar, N., Yasin, M. F., & Aziz, A. H. (2016). Implementation of green building incentives for construction key players in Malaysia. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), 8(2), 1039–1044.
[39] GBSCA. (2016). Green Building in South Africa: Guide to Costs & Trends. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2018).
[40] Kats, G. H. (2003). Green Building Costs and Financial Benefits. USA. Retrieved from (last accessed 31.05.2018).
[41] Li, Y., Yang, L., He, B., & Zhao, D. (2014). Green building in China: Needs great promotion. Sustainable Cities and Society, 11, 1–6.
[42] Zuo, J., & Zhao, Z. Y. (2014). Green building research-current status and future agenda: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, 271–281.
[43] MBIE. (2013). New Zealand Housing and Construction quarterly. Ministry of Business Innovation & Employment. Retrieved from (last accessed 31.05.2018).
[44] NZGBC website. Retrieved from (last accessed 31.05.2018).
[45] Stats NZ website. Retrieved from (last accessed 31.05.2018).
[46] MBIE. (2017). New Zealand Energy Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 2015 Calendar Year Edition. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Retrieved from (last accessed 31.05.2018).
[47] Harrison, D., & Seiler, M. (2011). The political economy of green office buildings. Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 29(4/5), 551–565.
[48] Smith, J., & Baird, G. (2007). SB07 Presentations from Sustainable Building Conference Website:
[49] Fullbrook, D., Jackson, Q., & Finlay, G. (2006). Value Case for Sustainable Building in New Zealand (Vol. February 2). Ministry for the Environment. Retrieved from (last accessed 10.06.2018).
[50] Myers, G., Reed, R., & Robinson, J. (2008). Sustainable property - The future of the New Zealand market. Pacific Rim Property Research Journal, 14(3), 298–321.
[51] NZGBC. (2017b). Green Star Technical manual v3.2. New Zealand Green Building Council. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2018).
[52] Murphy, L. (2011). The global financial crisis and the Australian and New Zealand housing markets. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 26(3), 335–351.
[53] Grimes, A., & Hyland, S. (2015). Housing markets and the global financial crisis: The complex dynamics of a credit shock. Contemporary Economic Policy, 33(2), 315–333.
[54] Stats NZ. (2017). Building plans put to work. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved from (last accessed 06.06.2018).
[55] Coleman, A., & Karagedikli, Ö. (2018). Residential construction and population growth in New Zealand: 1996-2016 (Discussion Paper Series). Retrieved from papers.
[56] Green Building Council Australia website. Retrieved from (last accessed 28.05.2018).
[57] Kajikawa, Y., Inoue, T., & Goh, T. N. (2011). Analysis of building environment assessment frameworks and their implications for sustainability indicators. Sustainability Science, 6(2), 233–246.
[58] Green Building Initiative website. Retrieved from (last accessed 28.05.2018).
[59] Whelton, M., & Ballard, G. (2003). Dynamic States of Project Purpose: Transitions From Customer Needs to Project Requirements - Implications for Adaptive Management. In 11th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (pp. 1–13). Virginia, USA.
[60] Baird, G. (2009). Incorporating user performance criteria into building sustainability rating tools (BSRTs) for buildings in operation. Sustainability, 1(4), 1069–1086.
[61] Shen, W., Zhang, X., Shen, G. Q., & Fernando, T. (2013). The user pre-occupancy evaluation method in designer-client communication in early design stage: A case study. Automation in Construction, 32, 112–124.
[62] van der Zwart, J., & van der Voordt, T. J. M. (2015). Pre-Occupancy Evaluation of Patient Satisfaction in Hospitals. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 9(1), 110–124.
[63] Myers, G., Reed, R., & Robinson, J. (2008). Sustainable property - The future of the New Zealand market. Pacific Rim Property Research Journal, 14(3), 298–321.
[64] Jalaei, F., & Jrade, A. (2015). Integrating building information modelling (BIM) and LEED system at the conceptual design stage of sustainable buildings. Sustainable Cities and Society, 18, 95–107.
[65] Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques. New Age International (P) Ltd.
[66] Weilin, S. (2011). A BIM-based Pre-occupancy Evaluation Platform (PEP) for Facilitating Designer-Client Communication in the Early Design Stage. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Retrieved from (last accessed 10.06.2018).
[67] Ng, E. (2013). Impact of Green Buildings on the Value of Property. University College London. Retrieved from (last accessed 10.06.2018).