Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32732
The Impact of Open Defecation on Fecal-Oral Infections: A Case Study in Burat and Ngaremara Wards of Isiolo County, Kenya

Authors: Kimutai Joan Jepkorir, Moturi Wilkister Nyaora


The practice of open defecation can be devastating for human health as well as the environment, and this practice persistence could be due to ingrained habits that individuals continue to engage in despite having a better alternative. Safe disposal of human excreta is essential for public health protection. This study sought to find if open defecation relates to fecal-oral infections in Burat and Ngaremara Wards in Isiolo County. This was achieved through conducting a cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 385 households that were used in the study. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires and observation checklists. The result show that 66% of the respondents disposed-off fecal matter in a safe manner, whereas 34% disposed-off fecal matter in unsafe manner through open defecation. The prevalence proportions per 1000 of diarrhea and intestinal worms among children under-5 years of age were 142 and 21, respectively. The prevalence proportions per 1000 of diarrhea and typhoid among children over-5 years of age were 20 and 20, respectively.

Keywords: Fecal-oral infections, open defecation, prevalence proportion, sanitation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 729


[1] Leclerc, H., Edberg, S., Pierzo, V., and Delattre, j.M. (2000): Bacteriophages as indicators of enteric viruses and public health risk in ground waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88: 5-21.
[2] WHO/UNICEF. (2010). Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2010 Update. Geneva, New York Publishers
[3] WHO/UNICEF. (2015)Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[4] Kar, K. (2000). Facilitating Collective behavior change for improving livelihoods of the poor. Facilitating human behavior change (3rd ed). India, I: CLTS foundation.
[5] WHO/UNICEF. (2012). Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation:2012 Update. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supplyand Sanitation, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[6] Joint Monitoring Programme. (2011). Water supply and sanitation in Kenya. Turning finance into services for 2015 and beyond. An AMCOW country status overview.
[7] Perez, E., Rosensweig, F., Robinson, A. (2012). Policy and sector reform to accelerate access to improved rural sanitation. Water and sanitation program working paper, 5, 24-30.
[8] Leclerc, H., and Schwartzbrod, L. (2002). Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 4: 371–409.
[9] WHO. (2010). Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2010 Update. Geneva, New York Publishers.
[10] UNICEF/WHO. (2009). Diarrhea: why children are still dying and what can be done. Geneva,G, Switzerland. WHO Press.
[11] Thys, S., Mwape, K. E., Lefèvre, P., Dorny, P., Marcotty, T., Phiri, A. M., Gabriël, S. (2015). Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities’ Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(3), e0003570.
[12] Jenkins MW, Curtis V (2005) Achieving the ‘good life’: Why some people want latrines in rural Benin. Soc Sci Med 61: 2446–2459.
[13] Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. (2008). Division of Sanitation and Hygiene profile. www.public (accessed on August 2017).
[14] UNICEF/WHO. (2012). Progresss on drinking water and sanitation Joint Monitoring Programme update. Water and sanitation, 58: 14-17.
[15] Ross, R. K., King, J. D., Damte M. (2011). Evaluation of household latrine coverage in Kewot Woreda, Ethiopia, 3 years after implementing interventions to control blinding trachoma. Trop Med Int Health, 3(4):251-258.
[16] Bahir Dar Zuria District Health Office: 2011/2012 Annual report. Bahir Dar; Unpublished document from the District Health Office.
[17] Republic of Kenya. (2011). A practitioners guide for ODF verification in Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, UNICEF, KWAHO, INTOUCH.
[18] Muruka.C and Njuguna.J. (2011). Diarrhea and malnutrition among children in a Kenyan District: A correlation study. Journal of rural and tropical public health, 10, 35-38.
[19] Mbae K., Noke J., Mulinge E., Nyambura J., Waruru A., and Kariuki S. (2013). Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya. BMC infect Dis, 13: 243.
[20] Buzingi. E. (2015). Prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with severe acute malnutrition related diarrhea. Journal of Biology Agriculture and Health care, 5(2), 81.
[21] Malisa. A., and Nyaki.H. (2010). Prevalence and constraints of Typhoid fever and its control in an endemic area of Singida region in Tanzania: Lessons for effective control of the disease. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 2(5), 93-99.
[22] Schmidlinm T., Hurlimann, E., Kigbafuri, D., Houngbedji, C amnd Bernadette, D (2013). Effects of helminthes and defecation behavior of Helminthes and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo Cotedvoire. Journal.pone.3(10): 137.
[23] Okyay, P., Ertug, S., Guttekin, B., Onen, O and Beser, E. (2004). Intestinal Parasites Prevalence and Related Factors inSchool Children, a Western City Sampl-Turkey. BMC Public Health. 4:64.
[24] Brown, J. (2013). "Water, sanitation, hygiene and enteric infections in children." Archives of Disease in Childhood.