Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32468
The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I

Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi


The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

Keywords: Resistance exercise, milk, NT-proBNP, Troponin I.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 616


[1] Lippi, G., et al., Influence of physical exercise and relationship with biochemical variables of NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide and ischemia modified albumin. Clinica chimica acta, 2006. 367(1): p. 175-180.
[2] Daniels, L. B. and A. S. Maisel, Natriuretic peptides. Journal of the American college of cardiology, 2007. 50(25): p. 2357-2368.
[3] Raymond, I., et al., The influence of age, sex and other variables on the plasma level of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide in a large sample of the generalpopulation. Heart, 2003. 89(7): p. 745-751.
[4] Januzzi Jr, J. L., et al., Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide testing for prediction of 1-year mortality in patients with dyspnea treated in the emergency department. Archives of internalmedicine, 2006. 166(3): p. 315.
[5] Scharhag, J., et al., Independent elevations of N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponins in endurance athletes after prolonged strenuous exercise. American heart journal, 2005. 150(6): p. 1128-1134.
[6] Krupička, J., et al., Effect of short-term maximal exercise on BNP plasma levels in healthy individuals. Physiol. Res, 2010. 59: p. 625-628.
[7] Smart, N. and M. Steele, Systematic review of the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise training on systemic brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal BNP expression in heart failure patients. International journal of cardiology, 2010. 140(3): p. 260-265.
[8] Schulz, O. and H. H. Sigusch, Impact of an exercise-induced increase in cardiac troponin I in chronic heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The American journal of cardiology, 2002. 90(5): p. 547-550.
[9] Shave, R., et al., Prolonged exercise should be considered alongside typical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction when evaluating increases in cardiac troponin T. Heart, 2005. 91(9): p. 1219-1220.
[10] O'Hanlon, R., et al., Research Troponin release following endurance exercise: is inflammation the cause? a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. 2010.
[11] Rahnama, N., M. Faramarzi, and A. A. Gaeini, Effects of intermittent exercise on cardiac troponin i and creatine kinase-MB. International journal of preventive medicine, 2011. 2(1): p. 20.
[12] Shave, R., et al., Evidence of exercise-induced cardiac dysfunction and elevated cTnT in separate cohorts competing in an ultra-endurance mountain marathon race. International journal of sports medicine, 2002. 23(07): p. 489-494.
[13] Michielsen, E. C., W. K. Wodzig, and M. P. Van Dieijen-Visser, Cardiac troponin T releaseafter prolonged strenuous exercise. Sports Medicine, 2008. 38(5): p. 425-435.
[14] Lippi, G. and M. Plebani, High-sensitive troponin testing and the “runner's syndrome”. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2011. 41(1): p. 85-87.
[15] Neumayr, G., et al., Plasma levels of cardiac troponin I after prolonged strenuous endurance exercise. The American journal of cardiology, 2001. 87(3): p. 369-371.
[16] Scharhag, J., et al., Exercise-associated increases in cardiac biomarkers. Medicine+ Science in Sports+ Exercise, 2008. 40(8): p. 1408.
[17] Shave, R., K. George, and D. Gaze, The influence of exercise upon cardiac biomarkers: a practical guide for clinicians and scientists. Current medicinal chemistry, 2007. 14(13): p. 1427-1436.
[18] Collinson, P., P. Stubbs, andA. Kessler, Multicentre evaluation of the diagnostic value of cardiac troponin T, CK-MB mass, and myoglobin for assessing patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes in routine clinical practice. Heart, 2003. 89(3): p. 280-286.
[19] Cockburn, E., et al., Effect of volume of milk consumed on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. European journal of applied physiology, 2012. 112(9): p. 3187-3194.
[20] Kammer, L., et al., Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2009. 6: p. 11.
[21] Cooke, M.B., et al., Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate. Journal of theInternational Society of Sports Nutrition, 2011. 8(1): p. 1-9.
[22] Hoffman, J.R., et al., Effect of a proprietary protein supplement on recovery indices following resistance exercise in strength/power athletes. Amino acids, 2010. 38(3): p. 771-778.
[23] Shave, R. and D. Oxborough, Exercise-Induced Cardiac Injury: Evidence From Novel Imaging Techniques and Highly Sensitive Cardiac Troponin Assays. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 2012. 54(5): p. 407-415.
[24] Conraads, V. M., et al., Combined endurance/resistance training reduces NT-proBNP levels in patients with chronic heart failure. European heart journal, 2004. 25(20): p. 1797-1805.
[25] König, D., et al., Biomarkers of exercise-induced myocardial stress in relation to inflammatory and oxidative stress. Exerc Immunol Rev, 2007. 13(1): p. 15-36.
[26] McLachlan, C. and P. Mossop, Are elevations of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide in endurance athletes after prolonged strenuous exercise due to systemic inflammatory cytokines? American heart journal, 2006. 152(1): p. e1.
[27] Bordbar, S., et al., Effect of endurance and strength exercise on release of brain natriuretic peptide. Journal of cardiovascular disease research, 2012. 3(1): p. 22.
[28] Mair, J., et al., Concentration time courses of troponin and myosin subunits after acute myocardial infarction. Coronary artery disease, 1994. 5(10): p. 865-872.
[29] Neilan, T. G., et al., Myocardial injury and ventricular dysfunction related to training levels among nonelite participants in the Boston marathon. Circulation, 2006. 114(22): p. 23, 25-2333.
[30] Clarkson, P. M. and M. J. Hubal, Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 2002. 81(11): p. S52-S69.
[31] Cheung, K., P. A. Hume, and L. Maxwell, Delayed onset muscle soreness. Sports Medicine, 2003. 33(2): p. 145-164.
[32] Wojcik J. R. Effect of carbohydrate-protein beverageon glycogen resynthesis and muscle damageinduced by eccentric resistance exercise. J IntSocSports Nutr 2001`; 31: 228-33.
[33] Baty, J. J., et al., The effect of a carbohydrate and protein supplement on resistance exercise performance, hormonal response, and muscle damage. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2007. 21(2): p. 321.
[34] Stock, M.S., et al., The effects of adding leucine to pre and postexercise carbohydrate beverages on acute muscle recovery from resistance training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2010. 24(8): p. 2211-2219.
[35] Romano-Ely, B. C., et al., Effect of an isocaloric carbohydrate-protein-antioxidant drink on cycling performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2006. 38(9): p. 1608-1616.
[36] Cockburn, E., et al., Acute milk-based protein-CHO supplementation attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2008. 33(4): p. 775-783.
[37] Bird, S. P., K. M. Tarpenning, and F. E. Marino, Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations followingresistance training in untrained men. European journal of applied physiology, 2006. 97(2): p. 225-238.