Evaluation of Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index in Obese Children
A growing list of cancers might be influenced by obesity. Obesity is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence and development of some cancers. Inflammation can lead to cancer. It is one of the characteristic features of cancer and plays a critical role in cancer development. C-reactive protein (CRP) is under evaluation related to the new and simple prognostic factors in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. Obesity can predict and promote systemic inflammation in healthy adults. BMI is correlated with hs-CRP. In this study, SII index and CRP values were evaluated in children with normal BMI and those within the range of different obesity grades to detect the tendency towards cancer in pediatric obesity. A total of one hundred and ninety-four children; thirty-five children with normal BMI, twenty overweight (OW), forty-seven obese (OB) and ninety-two morbid obese (MO) participated in the study. Age- and sex-matched groups were constituted using BMI-for age percentiles. Informed consent was obtained. Ethical Committee approval was taken. Weight, height, waist circumference (C), hip C, head C and neck C of the children were measured. The complete blood count test was performed. C-reactive protein analysis was performed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p≤0.05. SII index values were progressively increasing starting from normal weight (NW) to MO children. There is a statistically significant difference between NW and OB as well as MO children. No significant difference was observed between NW and OW children, however, a correlation was observed between NW and OW children. MO constitutes the only group, which exhibited a statistically significant correlation between SII index and CRP. Obesity-related bladder, kidney, cervical, liver, colorectal, endometrial cancers are still being investigated. Obesity, characterized as a chronic low-grade inflammation, is a crucial risk factor for colon cancer. Elevated childhood BMI values may be indicative of processes leading to cancer, initiated early in life. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the cancer incidence in adults. To authors’ best knowledge, this study is the first to introduce SII index values during obesity of varying degrees of severity. It is suggested that this index seems to affect all stages of obesity with an increasing tendency and may point out the concomitant status of obesity and cancer starting from very early periods of life.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474479Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 752
 O. M. Moussa, S. Erridge, S. Chidambaram, P. Ziprin, A. Darzi, and Purkayastha S., “Mortality of the severely obese: A population study,” Ann Surg, 2018 Mar 8. (Epub ahead of print)
 N. A. Berger, “Young adult cancer: Influence of the obesity pandemic,” Obesity (Silver Spring), vol.26, no. 4, pp. 641-650, Apr. 2018.
 K. F. Brown, H. Rumgay, C. Dunlop, M. Ryan, F. Quartly, A. Cox, A. Deas, L. Elliss-Brookes, A. Gavin, L. Hounsome, D. Huws, N. Ormiston-Smith, J. Shelton, C. White, and D. M. Parkin, “The fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 2015.,” Br J Cancer, 2018 Mar 23. (Epub ahead of print)
 T. W. Stone, M. McPherson, and L. Gail Darlington, “Obesity and cancer: Existing and new hypotheses for a causal connection,” EBioMedicine, 2018 Feb 27. (Epub ahead of print)
 G. A. Colditz, and K. M. Emmons, “Accelerating the pace of cancer prevention- Right now,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2018 Mar 8. (Epub ahead of print)
 H. Zhao, J. Wang, D. Fang, O. Lee, R. T. Chatterton, V. Stearns, S. A. Khan, and Bulun SE, “Adiposity results in metabolic and inflammation differences in premenopausal and postmenopausal women consistent with the difference in breast cancer risk,” Horm Cancer, 2018 Mar 15. (Epub ahead of print)
 A. J. Murphy-Alford, M. White, L. Lockwood, A. Hallahan, and P. S. V. Davies,“Body composition, dietary intake and physical activity of young survivors of childhood cancer,” Clin Nutr, 2018 Mar 7. (Epub ahead of print)
 C. B. Turer, T. M. Brady, and S. D. de Ferranti, “Obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in childhood are key modifiable antecedents of adult cardiovascular disease: A call to action,” Circulation, vol.137, no. 12, pp. 1256-1259, Mar. 2018.
 F. N. Belle, J. Wenke-Zobler, E. Cignacco, B. D. Spycher, R. A. Ammann, C. E. Kuehni, and Zimmermann K, “Overweight in childhood cancer patients at diagnosis and throughout therapy: A multicentre cohort study,” Clin Nutr 2018 Mar 2. (Epub ahead of print)
 X. Hong, B. Cui, M. Wang, Z. Yang, L. Wang, and Q. Xu, “Systemic immune-inflammation index, based on platelet counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, is useful for predicting prognosis in small cell lung cancer,” Tohoku J Exp Med, vol. 236, no. 4, pp. 297-304, Aug 2015.
 Y. S. Tong, J. Tan, X. L. Zhou, Y. Q. Song, and Y. J. Song, “Systemic immune-inflammation index predicting chemoradiation resistance and poor outcome in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer,” J Transl Med, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 221, Oct. 2017.
 M. H. Aziz, K. Sideras, N. A. Aziz, K. Mauff, R. Haen, D. Roos, L. Saida, M. Suker, E. van der Harst, J. S. Mieog, B. A. Bonsing, Y. Klaver, B. G. Koerkamp, and C. H. van Eijck, “The systemic-immune-inflammation index independently predicts survival and recurrence in resectable pancreatic cancer and its prognostic value depends on bilirubin levels: A retrospective multicenter cohort study,” Ann Surg, 2018 Jan 12. (Epub ahead of print)
 L. Fan, R. Wang, C. Chi, W. Cai, Y. Zhang, H. Qian, X. Shao, Y. Wang, F. Xu, J. Pan, Y. Zhu, X. Shangguan, L. Zhou, B. Dong, and W. Xue. “Systemic immune-inflammation index predicts the combined clinical outcome after sequential therapy with abiraterone and docetaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients,” Prostate, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 250-256, Mar. 2018.
 J. H. Chen, E. T. Zhai, Y. J. Yuan, K. M. Wu, J. B. Xu, J. J. Peng, C. Q. Chen, Y. L. He, and S. R. Cai, “Systemic immune-inflammation index for predicting prognosis of colorectal cancer,” World J Gastroenterol, vol. 23, no. 34, pp. 6261-6272, Sep. 2017.
 L. Chen, Y. Yan, L. Zhu, X. Cong, S. Li, S. Song, H. Song, and Y. Xue, “Systemic immune-inflammation index as a useful prognostic indicator predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Cancer Manag Res, vol. 9, pp. 849-867, Dec. 2017.
 K. Wang, F. Diao, Z. Ye, X. Zhang, E. Zhai, H. Ren, T. Li, H. Wu, Y. He, S. Cai, and Chen J. “Prognostic value of systemic immune-inflammation index in patients with gastric cancer,” Chin J Cancer, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 75, Sep 2017.
 B. Hu, X. R. Yang, Xu Y, Sun YF, Sun C, Guo W, Zhang X, Wang WM, Qiu SJ, Zhou J, and Fan J, “Systemic immune-inflammation index predicts prognosis of patients after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma,” Clin Cancer Res, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 6212-6222, Dec. 2014.
 B. L. Wang, L. Tian, X. H. Gao, X. L. Ma, J. Wu, C. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhou, W. Guo, and X. R. Yang, “Dynamic change of the systemic immune inflammation index predicts the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection,” Clin Chem Lab Med, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1963-1969, Dec. 2016.
 Q. Pang, L. Zhou, K. Qu, R. X. Cui, H. Jin, and H. C. Liu, “Validation of inflammation-based prognostic models in patients with hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective observational study,” Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol,vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 60-70, Jan. 2018.
 W. Jiang, Y. Chen, J. Huang, D. Xi, J. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xu, W. Ying, J. Wei, J. Chen, Z. Ning, W. Gu, and H. Pei, “Systemic immune-inflammation index predicts the clinical outcome in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 39, pp. 66075-66086, Aug. 2017.
 Y. Geng, Y. Shao, D. Zhu, X. Zheng, Q. Zhou, W. Zhou, X. Ni, C. Wu, and J. Jiang, “Systemic immune-inflammation index predicts prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A propensity score-matched analysis,” Sci Rep, vol. 6, no. 39482, Dec. 2016.
 J. F. Feng, S. Chen, and X. Yang X, “Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) is a useful prognostic indicator for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus,” Medicine (Baltimore), vol. 96, no. 4, pp. e5886, Jan. 2017.
 L. Wang, C. Wang, J. Wang, X. Huang, and Y. Cheng, “A novel systemic immune-inflammation index predicts survival and quality of life of patients after curative resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,” J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, vol. 143, no. 10, pp. 2077-2086, Oct. 2017.
 J. H. Zhong, D. H. Huang, and Z. Y. Chen, “Prognostic role of systemic immune-inflammation index in solid tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 43, pp. 75381-75388, Jun. 2017.
 Semeniuk-Wojtas, A. Lubas, R. Stec, T. Syrylo, S. Niemczyk, and C. Szczylik, “Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein as new and simple prognostic factors in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Clin Genitourin Cancer, 2018 Feb. 2, (Epub ahead of print)
 G. C. Leonardi, G. Accardi, R. Monastero, F. Nicoletti, and M. Libra, “Ageing: from inflammation to cancer,” Immun Ageing, vol.15, no.1, Dec. 2018.
 L. C. C. N. Ferreira,H. J. G. da Silva, T. A. Lins, and WL do Prado, “Relationship between lipid and haematological profiles with adiposity in obese adolescents,” Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 163-166, May- Jun. 2013.
 O. Donma, M. M. Donma, B. Nalbanoglu, B. Topcu, F. Tulubas, M. Aydin, T. Gokkus and A. Gurel, “The importance of erythrocyte parameters in obese children,” Int J Med Health Biomed Bioeng Pharmaceut Eng, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 361-364, May 2015.
 M. M. Donma, and O. Donma O, "Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio: A predictor of cardiometabolic complications in morbid obese girls,” Int J Med Health Biomed Bioeng Pharmaceut Eng, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 244-247, May 2017.
 O. Donma O, and M. M. Donma, “Eosinophils and platelets: players of the game in morbid obese boys with metabolic syndrome,” Int J Med Health Biomed Bioeng Pharmaceut Eng, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 240-243, May 2017.
 R. Liang, N. Chen, M. Li, X. Wang, Q. Mao, and Y. Liu, “Significance of systemic immune-inflammation index in the differential diagnosis of high and low-grade gliomas,” Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol.164, pp. 50-52, Jan. 2018.