Accounting for Rice Productivity Heterogeneity in Ghana: The Two-Step Stochastic Metafrontier Approach
Rice yields among agro-ecological zones are heterogeneous. Farmers, researchers and policy makers are making frantic efforts to bridge rice yield gaps between agro-ecological zones through the promotion of improved agricultural technologies (IATs). Farmers are also modifying these IATs and blending them with indigenous farming practices (IFPs) to form farmer innovation systems (FISs). Also, different metafrontier models have been used in estimating productivity performances and their drivers. This study used the two-step stochastic metafrontier model to estimate the productivity performances of rice farmers and their determining factors in GSZ, FSTZ and CSZ. The study used both primary and secondary data. Farmers in CSZ are the most technically efficient. Technical inefficiencies of farmers are negatively influenced by age, sex, household size, education years, extension visits, contract farming, access to improved seeds, access to irrigation, high rainfall amount, less lodging of rice, and well-coordinated and synergized adoption of technologies. Albeit farmers in CSZ are doing well in terms of rice yield, they still have the highest potential of increasing rice yield since they had the lowest TGR. It is recommended that government through the ministry of food and agriculture, development partners and individual private companies promote the adoption of IATs as well as educate farmers on how to coordinate and synergize the adoption of the whole package. Contract farming concept and agricultural extension intensification should be vigorously pursued to the latter.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1340613Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 360
 Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA). Statistics, Research and Information Directorate (SRID), Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Accra, Ghana, 2016.
 A. Abdulai and W. E. Huffman, “Adoption and impact of soil and water conservation technology: an endogenous switching regression application”, Land Economics, Vol. 90, pp. 26-43, 2014.
 S. Al-hassan, “Technical efficiency in smallholder paddy farms in Ghana: an analysis based on different farming systems and gender”, Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, Vol. 3 No. 5, pp. 91-106, 2012.
 S. Asuming-Brempong, K. O. Gyasi, K. A. Marfo, A. Diagne, A. N. Wiredu, A. Asuming-Boakye, J. Haleegoah, and B. N. Frimpong, “The exposure and adoption of New Rice for Africa (NERICAs) among Ghanaian rice farmers: What is the evidence?”, African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 6 No. 27, pp. 5911-5917, 2011.
 A. Sena, “Economic efficiency analyses of NERICA rice farms in the Volta Region of Ghana”, Thesis Submitted to the University of Ghana, Legon in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of M.Phil. in Agricultural Economics, 2011.
 E. Donkor, E. Owusu-Sekyere, V. Owusu and H. Jordaan, “Impact of row-planting adoption on productivity of rice farming in Northern Ghana”, Review of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 19-28, H. 2016.
 E. Donkor, E. Owusu-Sekyere, V. Owusu and H. Jordaan, “Impact of agricultural extension service on adoption of chemicalfertilizer: Implications for rice productivity and development in Ghana”, NJAS: wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2016, pp. 1-9, 2016.
 Battese, G.E., Rao, D.S.P. and O’Donnell, C.J. (2004), “A metafrontier production function for estimation of technical efficiencies and technology potentials for firms operating under different technologies”, Journal of Productivity Analysis, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 91-103.
 C. J. O’Donnell, D. S. P. Rao and G. E. Battese, “Metafrontier frameworks for the study of firm-level efficiencies and technology ratios”, Empirical Economics, Springer, Vol. 34, pp. 231–255, 2008.
 C. J. Huang, T-H. Huang, and N-H. Liu, “A new approach to estimating the metafrontier production function based on a stochastic frontier framework”, Journal of Productivity Analysis. Vol. 42, pp. 241-254, 2014.
 G. E. Battese, “A note on the estimation of Cobb-Douglas production functions when some explanatory variables have zero values”, Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 48 No. 2, pp. 250-252, 1997.
 K. Ogundari, “Crop diversification and technical efficiency in food crop production”, International Journal of Social Economics. Vol. 40 No. 3, pp. 267-287, 2013.
 E. S. Visco, “Dynamics of conflict of cooperation of group stability among selected government-assisted cooperatives I region IV, Philippines”, International Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 1, pp. 222–232, 2006.
 Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), “Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6 (GLSS 6), Main Report”, Ghana Statistical Service, Accra, 2014.
 J. A. Onumah, E. E. Onumah, R. M. Alhassan and B. Brümmer, “Meta-frontier analysis of organic and conventional cocoa production in Ghana”, Agric. Econ. Czech, Vol. 59 No. 6, pp. 271–280, 2013.
 M. J. Mariano, R. Villano, F. Fleming and R. Acda, “Metafrontier analysis of farm-level efficiencies and environmental-technology gaps in Philippine rice farming”, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (AARES), 54th Annual Conference, Adelaide, Australia, 10-12 February, 2010.
 T. J. Coelli, D. S. P. Rao, C. J. O’Donnell and G. E. Battese, An introduction to efficiency and productivity analysis, 2nd ed., Springer, New York, NY, 2005.
 P. J. Dawson, J. Lingard and C. H. Woodford, “A generalized measure of farm-specific technical efficiency”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 73 No. 4, pp. 1099-1104, 1991.
 S. Al-hassan, “Technical efficiency of rice farmers in Northern Ghana”, The African Economic Research Consortium, Research Paper 178, Nairobi, Kenya, 2008.
 J. Asravor, E. E. Onumah, A. N. Wiredu and K. Siddig, “Rice productivity and technical efficiency: a meta-frontier analysis of rice farms in Northern Ghana”. Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development organized by the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Tropentag 2015, Berlin, Germany, September 16-18, 2015.
 E. Donkor and V. Owusu, “Effects of land tenure systems on resource-use productivity and efficiency in Ghana’s rice industry”, African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 286-299, 2014.
 S. Abdulai, P. A. Nkegbe and S. A. Donkoh, “Technical efficiency of maize production in Northern Ghana”, African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 8 No. 43, pp. 5251-5259, 2013.
 K. Ogundari and T. Awokuse, “Land tenure and technical efficiency of rice farms in Thailand”, Paper prepared for presentation at the “2016 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty” The World Bank - Washington DC, March 14-18, 2016.
 K. Miyamoto, A. Maruyama, Y. Haneishi, S. Matsumoto, T. Tsuboi, G. Asea, S. Okello, M. Takagaki and M. Kikuchi, “NERICA cultivation and its yield determinants: the case of upland rice farmers in Namulonge, Central Uganda”, Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 4 No. 6, pp. 1916-9760, 2012.
 P. Rowhani, D. B. Lobell, M. Linderman and N. Ramankutty, “Climate variability and crop production in Tanzania”, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. Vol. 151 No. 2011, pp. 449-460, 2011.
 G. O. Akongo, W. Gombya-Ssembajjwe, M. Buyinza and A. Bua, “Effects of climate and conflict on technical efficiency of rice production, Northern Uganda”, Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, Vol. 7 No. 11, pp. 126-136, 2016.
 J. Njeru, “Factors influencing technical efficiencies among selected wheat farmers in Uasin Gishu District, Kenya”, The African Economic Research Consortium, Research Paper 206, Nairobi, Kenya, 2010.