Dietary Habit and Anthropometric Status in Hypertensive Patients Compared to Normotensive Participants in the North of Iran
Hypertension is one of the important reasons of morbidity and mortality in countries, including Iran. It has been shown that hypertension is a consequence of the interaction of genetics and environment. Nutrients have important roles in the controlling of blood pressure. We assessed dietary habit and anthropometric status in patients with hypertension in the north of Iran, and that have special dietary habit and according to their culture. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normotensive participants. Anthropometric status was measured and demographic characteristics, and medical condition were collected by valid questionnaires and dietary habit assessment was assessed with 3-day food recall (two weekdays and one weekend). The mean age of participants was 58 ± 6.7 years. The mean level of energy intake, saturated fat, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium was significantly lower in the hypertensive group compared to the control (p < 0.05). After adjusting for energy intake, positive association was observe between hypertension and some dietary nutrients including; Cholesterol [OR: 1.1, P: 0.001, B: 0.06], fiber [OR: 1.6, P: 0.001, B: 1.8], vitamin D [OR: 2.6, P: 0.006, B: 0.9] and zinc [OR: 1.4, P: 0.006, B: 0.3] intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was not significant association between hypertension, weight and waist circumference. In our study, the mean intake of some nutrients was lower in the hypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individual. Health training about suitable dietary habits and easier access to vitamin D supplementation in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1340424Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 348
 Padwal R, Hackam D, Khan N, Tobe S. Primary prevention of CVD: modification of diet in people with hypertension. BMJ Clin Evid. 2016.
 Zhanzhan L, Yanyan L, Lizhang C, Peng C, Yingyun H. Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicine. 2015;94(31).
 Padwal R, Straus S, McAlister F. Evidence based management of hypertension cardiovascular risk factors and their effects on the decision to treat hypertension: evidence based review. BMJ. 2001;322(7292):977-80.
 World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension; 2013; World Health Day Geneva.
 Altorf-van der Kuil W, Engberink M, Brink E, van Baak M, Bakker S, Navis G. Dietary protein and blood pressure: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2010;5: e12102.
 Houston M, Harper K. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium: their role in both the cause and treatment of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008;10:3-11.
 Messerli F, Schmieder R, Weir M. Salt. A perpetrator of hypertensive target organ disease? Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2449-52
 Lavie C, Dinicolantonio J, Milani R, JH OK. Vitamin D and cardiovascular health. Circulation. 2013;128(22):2404-6.
 Rosen C, Adams J, Bikle D. The nonskeletal effects of vitamin D: an endocrine society scientific statement. Endocr Rev. 2012;33(3):456-92.
 Weng S, Sprague J, Oh J. Vitamin D deficiency induces high blood pressure and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54625.
 Cozzolino M, Ketteler M, Zehnder D. The vitamin D system: a crosstalk between the heart and kidney. Eur J Heart Fail. 2010;12(10):1031-41.
 Andrukhova O, Slavic S, Zeitz U. Vitamin D is a regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arterial stiffness in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28(1):53-64.
 Gharipour M, Khosravi A, Sadeghi M, Roohafza H, Hashemi M. Socioeconomic characteristics and controlled hypertension: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. ARYA Atheroscler. 2013;9:77-81.
 Yarahmadi S, Etemad K, Hazaveh A, Azhang N. Urbanization and Non-Communicable Risk Factors in the Capital City of 6 Big Provinces of Iran. Iran J Public Health. 2013;42(113-118).
 World Health Organization. Regional country profiles; 2011.
 Mohtasahm Amiri Z, Barzigar A, Rahimi Kolamroudi H, Hoseini S, Rezvani S, Jafari shakib R. Hypertension in Iranian Urban Population: Prevalence, Awareness, Control and Affecting Factors. Prensa Med Argent. 2015;101(4).
 Kretchy I, Owusu-Daaku F, Danquah S. Mental health in hypertension: assessing symptoms of anxiety depression and stress on anti-hypertensive medication adherence. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2014;8(25).
 Byrd J, Powers J, Magid D, Tavel H, Schmittdiel J, O’Connor P. Detection and recognition of hypertension in anxious and depressed patients. J Hypertens. 2012;30:2293-8.
 Ke L, Mason R, Kariuki M, Mpofu E, Brock K. Vitamin D status and hypertension: a review. Integrated Blood Pressure Control. 2015;8:13-35.
 Kunutsor S, Apekey T, Steur M. Vitamin D and risk of future hypertension: meta-analysis of 283,537 participants. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28(3):205-21.
 Zhou C, Lu F, Cao K, Xu D, Goltzman D, Miao D. Calcium-independent and 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in 1alpha-hydroxylase knockout mice. Kidney Int. 2008;74(2):170-9.
 Resnick L, Muller F, Laragh J. Calcium-regulating hormones in essential hypertension. Relation to plasma renin activity and sodium metabolism. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105(5):649-54.
 Schroten N, Ruifrok W, Kleijn L. Short-term vitamin D3 supplementation lowers plasma renin activity in patients with stable chronic heart failure: an open-label, blinded end point, randomized prospective trial (VitD-CHF trial). Am Heart J. 2013;166(2):357-64e2.
 Wang D, He Y, Li Y, Luan D, Yang X, Zhai F. Dietary patterns and hypertension among Chinese adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:925.
 Mahdavi-Roshan, Marjan, Ali Zahedmehr, Ali Mohammad-Zadeh, Hamid-Reza Sanati, Farshad Shakerian, Ata Firouzi, Reza Kiani, and Javad Nasrollahzadeh. "Effect of garlic powder tablet on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with coronary artery disease A preliminary randomized controlled trial." Nutrition and health .2015; 0260106014563446.
 Farvid M, Jalali M, Siassi F, Saadat N, Hosseini M. The impact of vitamins and/or mineral supplementation on blood pressure in type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23:272-9.
 W A-vdK, MF E, EJ B, MA vB, SJ B, G N. Dietary protein and blood pressure: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2010;5:e12102.
 Larsson S, Virtamo J, Wolk A. Dietary protein intake and risk of stroke in women. Atherosclerosis. 2012;224:247-51.
 Begg D, Sinclair A, Stahl L, Garg M, Jois M, Weisinger R. Dietary protein level interacts with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency to induce hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:125-8.
 Houston M. Nutrition and nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of hypertension. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2010;8:821-33.
 Stamler J EP, Kesteloot H, Nichols R, Claeys G, Dyer, AR SR. Inverse relation of dietary protein markers with blood pressure. Findings for 10,020 men and women in the INTERSALT Study. INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group. .INTERnational study of SALT and blood pressure. Circulation. 1996;94:1629-34.
 Wilkinson I, Prasad K, Hall I, Thomas A, MacCallum H, Webb D. Increased central pulse pressure and augmentation index in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:1005-11.
 Pruijm M, Wuerzer G, Forni V, Bochud M, Pechère-Bertschi A, Burnier M. Nutrition and hypertension: more than table salt. Rev Med Suisse. 2010;6:1715-6.