Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30579
Modeling and Simulation of Ship Structures Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Javid Iqbal, Zhu Shifan


The development in the construction of unconventional ships and the implementation of lightweight materials have shown a large impulse towards finite element (FE) method, making it a general tool for ship design. This paper briefly presents the modeling and analysis techniques of ship structures using FE method for complex boundary conditions which are difficult to analyze by existing Ship Classification Societies rules. During operation, all ships experience complex loading conditions. These loads are general categories into thermal loads, linear static, dynamic and non-linear loads. General strength of the ship structure is analyzed using static FE analysis. FE method is also suitable to consider the local loads generated by ballast tanks and cargo in addition to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads. Vibration analysis of a ship structure and its components can be performed using FE method which helps in obtaining the dynamic stability of the ship. FE method has developed better techniques for calculation of natural frequencies and different mode shapes of ship structure to avoid resonance both globally and locally. There is a lot of development towards the ideal design in ship industry over the past few years for solving complex engineering problems by employing the data stored in the FE model. This paper provides an overview of ship modeling methodology for FE analysis and its general application. Historical background, the basic concept of FE, advantages, and disadvantages of FE analysis are also reported along with examples related to hull strength and structural components.

Keywords: Finite element methods, Vibration analysis, Dynamic Analysis, ship structure

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1363


[1] F.-X. Dumez et al., "A tool for rapid ship hull modelling and mesh generation," COMPIT’2008, 2008.
[2] H. Von Selle, O. Doerk, and M. Scharrer, "Global strength analysis of ships with special focus on fatigue of hatch corners," in MARSTRUCT 2009, 2nd International Conference on Marine Structures - Analysis and Design of Marine Structures, March 16, 2009 - March 18, 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, 2009, pp. 255-260: CRC Press.
[3] M. B. Rafael Doig, Jens Stammer, Paris Hernandez, Stefan Griesch, Dieter Kohn, Jonas Brånhult, Bärbel Bitterling, "Integrating Structural Design and Assessment," presented at the 8th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries, COMPIT’09, Budapest, 10-12 May, 2009.
[4] A. Hrennikoff, "Solution of problems of elasticity by the framework method," J. appl. Mech., 1941.
[5] R. Courant, "Variational methods for the solution of problems of equilibrium and vibrations," Bulletin of the American mathematical Society, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 1-23, 1943.
[6] R. W. Clough, "The finite element method in plane stress analysis," in Proceedings of 2nd ASCE Conference on Electronic Computation, Pittsburgh Pa., Sept. 8 and 9, 1960, 1960.
[7] SAP-IV Software and Manuals, NISEE e-Library (Online).
[8] G. Paulsen, Building Trust: The History of DNV, 1864-2014. Dinamo Forlag, 2014.
[9] G. Strang and G. Fix., "An analysis of the finite element method," ed: Prentice Hall, 1973.
[10] E. Hinton and B. Irons, "Least squares smoothing of experimental data using finite elements," Strain, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 24-27, 1968.
[11] O. Zienkiewicz, R. Taylor, and J. Zhu, "The Finite Element: Its Basis and Fundamentals," Elsevier, Oxford, 2005.
[12] P. Sunil Kumar and C. Nandakumar, "Finite Element Analysis of Warship Structures," Cochin University of Science and Technology, 2008.
[13] I. R. Dambra R, Porcari R., "The role of finite element technique in ship structural design," First south European technological meeting International conference, 2000.
[14] H. G. Payer et al., "Rational dimensioning and analysis of complex ship structures. Discussion. Authors' closure," Transactions-Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, vol. 102, pp. 395-417, 1994.
[15] J. R. John D McVee, "A Review of FEA Technology Issues Confronting the Marine & Offshore Industry Sector " in Proceedings of FENET Meeting, 2005.
[16] S. Timoshenko, "Goodie r, JN: Theory of Elasticity. Seconded," ed: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc, 1951.
[17] J. Clarkson, L. Wilson, and J. McKeeman, "Data sheets for the elastic design of flat grillages under uniform pressure," European Shipbuilding, vol. 8, pp. 174-198, 1959.
[18] G. Schnadel, The Effective Width in Box Girders and in the Double Bottom (Werft-Reederei-Hafen, no. 5). 1928.
[19] H. A. Schade, The effective breadth of stiffened plating under bending loads. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1951.
[20] H. A. Schade, Design curves for cross-stiffened plating under uniform bending load. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1941.
[21] J. Paulling and H. G. Payer, "Hull-deckhouse interaction by finite element calculations," Trans SNAME, vol. 76, pp. 281-296, 1968.
[22] G. De Wilde, "Structural problems in ships with large hatch openings," International Shipbuilding Progress, vol. 14, no. 150, pp. 73-83, 1967.
[23] M. Meek, R. Adams, J. Chapman, H. Reibel, and P. Wieske, "The structural design of the OCL container ships," Trans. RINA, vol. 114, pp. 241-292, 1972.
[24] P. Terndrup Pedersen, "Torsional response of containerships," Journal of Ship Research, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 194-205, 1985.
[25] E. Abrahamsen, "Design and reliability of ship structures," in Proceedings of Spring Meeting, SNAME, 1970, 1970.
[26] W. Fricke, M. Scharrer, and H. v. Selle, "Integrated Fatigue Analysis of Ship Structures," 1994.
[27] C. Carlsen, "A Parametric Study on Global Hull and Superstructure Vibration Analysis by Means of the Finite-Element Method," 1977.
[28] H. Payer and I. Asmussen, "Vibration response on propulsion-efficient container vessels," Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers-Transactions, vol. 93, 1985.
[29] I. Asmussen and H. Mumm, "Design of Ships Fitted with Two-stroke Engines in View of Low Vibration Level," 1992.
[30] S. Kar, D. Sarangdhar, and G. Chopra, "Analysis of ship structures using ansys," SeaTech Solutions International (S) Pte Ltd, 2008.
[31] L. A. Harlander, "Optimum plate stiffener arrangement for various types of loading," Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, 1955.
[32] J. H. Evans and D. Khoushy, "Optimized design of midship section structure," Trans. SNAME, vol. 71, pp. 144-191, 1963.
[33] H. Nowacki, F. Brusis, and P. Swift, "Tanker preliminary design-an optimization problem with constraints," 1970.
[34] O. F. Hughes, F. Mistree, and V. Zanic, "A practical method for the rational design of ship structures," Journal of Ship Research, vol. 24, no. 2, 1980.
[35] F. Hughes Owen, "Ship Structural Design–A Rationally Based Computer Aided Optimisation Approach," The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1988.
[36] J.-D. Caprace, F. Bair, and P. Rigo, "Multi-criteria Scantling Optimisation of Cruise Ships," Ship Technology Research, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 210-220, 2010.
[37] A. E. Mansour and R. C. Ertekin, Proceedings of the 15th International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress: 3-volume set. Elsevier, 2003.
[38] F. Mewis and H. Klug, "The challenge of very large container ships: a hydrodynamic view," in 9th Symposium on practical design of ships and other floating structures, 2004, pp. 173-181.
[39] A. Voogt, B. Buchner, and J. L.-C. Garcia, "Wave impact excitation on ship-type offshore structures in steep fronted waves," in Proceedings OMAE Speciality Conference on Integrity of Floating Production, Storage & Offloading (FPSO) Systems, 2004, pp. 04-0062.
[40] S. I. Seo, K. H. Son, and M. K. Park, "Optimum structural design of naval vessels," Marine Technology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 149-157, 2003.
[41] S. Khajehpour and D. E. Grierson, "Profitability versus safety of high-rise office buildings," Structural and multidisciplinary optimization, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 279-293, 2003.
[42] M. G. Parsons and R. L. Scott, "Formulation of multicriterion design optimization problems for solution with scalar numerical optimization methods," Journal of Ship Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 61-76, 2004.
[43] A. Klanac and P. Kujala, "Optimal design of steel sandwich panel applications in ships," PRADS, Lubeck-Travemuende, pp. 907-914, 2004.
[44] P. Rigo and U. o. Liege, "Differential Equations of stiffened panels of ship structures and Fourier series expansions," Ship Technology Research, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 82-100, 2005.
[45] V. Žanić, J. Andrić, and P. Prebeg, "Superstructure deck effectiveness of the generic ship types-A concept design methodology," in IMAM 2005, 2005.
[46] K. Cho et al., "ISSC06 Committee IV. 1," Design Principles and Criteria, vol. 1, pp. 521-599, 2006.
[47] L. Xuebin, "Multiobjective optimization and multiattribute decision making study of ship's principal parameters in conceptual design," Journal of Ship Research, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 83-92, 2009.
[48] T. Kurki, "Utilization of integrated design and mesh generation in ship design process," J Struct Mech, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 129-139, 2010.
[49] K. Feng, " A difference formulation based on variational principle," (in Chinese), Applied Mathematics and Mathematical Computation, vol. 2, pp. 138-162 1965.