Description of Reported Foodborne Diseases in Selected Communities within the Greater Accra Region-Ghana: Epidemiological Review of Surveillance Data
Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the frequently reported Out-Patient Department (OPD) cases. However, the causative pathogens of these cases are rarely identified at the OPD due to delay in laboratory results or failure to obtain specimens before antibiotics is administered. Method: A retrospective review of surveillance data from the Adentan Municipality, Accra, Ghana that were recorded in the National foodborne disease surveillance system of Ghana, was conducted with the main aim of describing the epidemiology and food practice of cases reported from the Adentan Municipality. The study involved a retrospective review of surveillance data kept on patients who visited health facilities that are involved in foodborne disease surveillance in Ghana, from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: A total of 375 cases were reviewed and these were classified as viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), cholera (Vibrio cholerae), dysentery (Shigella sp.), typhoid fever (Salmonella sp.) or gastroenteritis. Cases recorded were all suspected case and the average cases recorded per week was 3. Typhoid fever and dysentery were the two main clinically diagnosed foodborne illnesses. The highest number of cases were observed during the late dry season (Feb to April), which marks the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. Relatively high number of cases was also observed during the late wet seasons (Jul to Oct) when the rainfall is the heaviest. Home-made food and street vended food were the major sources of suspected etiological food, recording 49.01% and 34.87% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases recorded were classified as gastroenteritis due to the absence of laboratory confirmation. Few cases were classified as typhoid fever and dysentery based on clinical symptoms presented. Patients reporting with foodborne diseases were found to consume home meal and street vended foods as their predominant source of food.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317242Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Lai CC, Wu FT, Ji DD, Mu JJ, Yang JR, Chiu KT, Lin WY, Li CY, Fu YP, Chen WT et al: Gastroenteritis in a Taipei emergency department: aetiology and risk factors. Clinical microbiology and infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2011, 17(7):1071-1077.
 Chitambar S, Gopalkrishna V, Chhabra P, Patil P, Verma H, Lahon A, Arora R, Tatte V, Ranshing S, Dhale G et al: Diversity in the Enteric Viruses Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2012, 9(3):895-915.
 Lai C-C, Ji D-D, Wu F-T, Mu J-J, Yang J-R, Jiang DD-S, Lin W-Y, Chen W-T, Yen M-Y, Wu H-S et al: Etiology and Risk Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in a Taipei Emergency Department: Clinical Features for Bacterial Gastroenteritis. Journal of Epidemiology 2016, 26(4):216-223.
 Havelaar AH, Haagsma JA, Mangen M-JJ, Kemmeren JM, Verhoef LPB, Vijgen SMC: Disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the Netherlands, 2009. International journal of food microbiology 2012, 156.
 Jairath V, Langmead L: Acute gastroenterology. Clinical Medicine 2007, 7(No. 3):262-266.
 Kelly P: Diarrhoeal disease. Clinical medicine (London, England) 2011, 11(5):488-491.
 Minton J, Stanley P: Intra-abdominal infections. Clinical Medicine 2004, 4(No. 6).
 Fleury MD, Stratton J, Tinga C, Charron DF, Aramini J: A descriptive analysis of hospitalization due to acute gastrointestinal illness in Canada, 1995-2004. Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique 2008, 99(6):489-493.
 Osei-Tutu B, Anto F: Trends of reported foodborne diseases at the Ridge Hospital, Accra, Ghana: a retrospective review of routine data from 2009-2013. BMC infectious diseases 2016, 16(1):139.
 Manual for Foodborne Disease Surveillance in Ghana https://fdaghana.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/manual-for-integrated-foodborne-disease-surv-in-ghana.pdf
 Oguntoke O, Aboderin OJ, Bankole AM: Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in parts of Ibadan City, Nigeria. Tanzania journal of health research 2009, 11(4):189-195.
 Opare J, Ohuabunwo C, Afari E, Wurapa F, Sackey S, Der J, Afakye K, Odei E: Outbreak of cholera in the East Akim Municipality of Ghana following unhygienic practices by small-scale gold miners, November 2010. Ghana medical journal 2012, 46(3):116-123.
 Rebaudet S, Sudre B, Faucher B, Piarroux R: Cholera in coastal Africa: a systematic review of its heterogeneous environmental determinants. The Journal of infectious diseases 2013, 208 Suppl 1:S98-106.
 Ofori-Adjei D, Koram K: Of cholera and Ebola virus disease in Ghana. Ghana medical journal 2014, 48(3):120.
 Havelaar AH, Haagsma JA, Mangen M-JJ, Kemmeren JM, Verhoef LPB, Vijgen SMC, Wilson M, Friesema IHM, Kortbeek LM, Duynhoven YTHPv et al: Disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the Netherlands, 2009. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2012, 156:231-238.
 King LK, Awumbila B, Canacoo EA, Ofosu-Amaah S: An assessment of the safety of street foods in the Ga district, of Ghana; implications for the spread of zoonoses. Acta Tropica 2000, 76:39-43.
 Feglo P, Sakyi K: Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences 2012, 1(1):1-8.
 King L, Awumbila B, Canacoo E, Ofosu-Amaah S: An assessment of the safety of street foods in the Ga district, of Ghana; implications for the spread of zoonoses. Acta tropica 2000, 76(1):39-43.
 Osei Tutu B, Annison S: A Retrospective Cohort Study on an Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Linked to a Buffet Lunch Served during a Conference in Accra. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering 2017, 11(7):345-348.
 Gould LH, Rosenblum I, Nicholas D, Phan Q, Jones TF: Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007. Journal of food protection 2013, 76(11):1824-1828.
 Todd EC, Greig JD, Bartleson CA, Michaels BS: Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 3. Factors contributing to outbreaks and description of outbreak categories. Journal of food protection 2007, 70(9):2199-2217.