Co-Administration Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and L-Carnitine on Weight Gain and Biochemical Profile in Diet Induced Obese Rats
Obesity as a global health challenge motivates pharmaceutical industries to produce anti-obesity drugs. However, effectiveness of these agents is remained unclear. Because of popularity of dietary supplements, the aim of this study was tp investigate the effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) and L-carnitine (LC) on serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and weight changes in diet induced obese rats. 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: Normal fat diet (n=8), and High fat diet (HFD) (n=32). After eight weeks, the second group which was maintained on HFD until the end of study, was subdivided into four categories: a) 500 mg Corn Oil (as control group), b) 500 mg CLA, c) 200 mg LC, d) 500 mg CLA+ 200 mg LC.All doses are planned per kg body weights, which were administered by oral gavage for four weeks. Body weights were measured and recorded weekly by means of a digital scale. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical markers measurement. SPSS Version 16 was used for statistical analysis. At the end of 8th week, a significant difference in weight was observed between HFD and NFD group. After 12 weeks, LC significantly reduced weight gain by 4.2%. Trend of weight gain in CLA and CLA+LC groups was insignificantly decelerated. CLA+LC reduced triglyceride level significantly, but just CLA had significant influence on total cholesterol and insignificant decreasing effect on FBS. Our results showed that an obesogenic diet in a relative short time led to obesity and dyslipidemia which can be modified by LC and CLA to some extent.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317182Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 673
 Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9• 1 million participants. Lancet. Elsevier; 2011;377(9765):557–67.
 Katherine M. Flegal, Margaret D. Carroll, Cynthia L. Ogden LRC. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity Among US Adults, 1999-2008. JAMA (Internet). 2010;303(3):235–41.
 Seidell JC: Worldwide Prevalence of Obesity in Adults. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C, editors. Handbook of obesity. 3th ed. London: Taylor & Francis Group, pp 47-57, 2013
 Padula W V., Allen RR, Nair K V. Determining the cost of obesity and its common comorbidities from a commercial claims database. Clin Obes (Internet). 2014;4(1):53–8.
 Odo S, Tanabe K, Yamauchi M. A pilot clinical trial on l-carnitine supplementation in combination with motivation training: effects on weight management in healthy volunteers. Food Nutr Sci. Scientific Research Publishing; 2013;4(February):222.
 Bray GA. Medical therapy for obesity. Mt Sinai J Med A J Transl Pers Med. Wiley Online Library; 2010;77(5):407–17.
 Blanck HM, Khan LK, Serdula MK. Use of nonprescription weight loss products: results from a multistate survey. Jama. American Medical Association; 2001;286(8):930–5.
 Blanck HM, Serdula MK, Gillespie C, Galuska D a., Sharpe P a., Conway JM, et al. Use of Nonprescription Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss Is Common among Americans. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(3):441–7.
 Jeukendrup a E, Randell R. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes Rev (Internet). 2011 Oct (cited 2014 Oct 4);12(10):841–51.
 Osorio JH. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss : a biochemical approach. Colomb Med. 2011;42:529–35.
 Dwyer JT, Allison DB, Coates PM. Dietary Supplements in Weight Reduction. J Am Diet Assoc (Internet). 2005 May;105(5, Supplement):80–6.
 Cha YS. Effects of L-carnitine on obesity , diabetes , and as an ergogenic aid. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(December 2007):306–8.
 Flanagan JL, Simmons PA, Vehige J, Willcox MDP, Garrett Q. Role of carnitine in disease Review. Nutrition&Metabolism. 2010;1–14.
 Wutzke KD, Lorenz H. The effect of l-carnitine on fat oxidation, protein turnover, and body composition in slightly overweight subjects. Metabolism. Elsevier; 2004;53(8):1002–6.
 Watras a C, Buchholz a C, Close RN, Zhang Z, Schoeller D a. The role of conjugated linoleic acid in reducing body fat and preventing holiday weight gain. Int J Obes (Lond) (Internet). 2007 Mar (cited 2014 Oct 20);31(3):481–7.
 Onakpoya IJ, Posadzki PP, Watson LK, Davies L a, Ernst E. The efficacy of long-term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition in overweight and obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Nutr (Internet). 2012 Mar (cited 2014 Oct 20);51(2):127–34.
 Li Z, Yang D, Jiang L, Ji J, Ji H, Zeng X. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of conjugated linoleic acid with L-carnitine in solvent-free system and acetonitrile. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng (Internet). 2007 Sep (cited 2014 Oct 20);30(5):331–6.
 Chopra RJ. synergistic conjucated linoleic acid (CLA) and carnitine combination. Pat Appl Publ. 2006;
 Reeves PG. Committee Report AIN-93 Purified Diets for Laboratory Rodents: Final Report of the American Institute of Nutrition Ad Hoc Writing Committee on the Reformulation of the AIN-76A Rodent Diet. J Nutr 123 1939-1951, 1993. 1993;123:1939–51.
 Amin K a, Nagy M A. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats. Diabetol Metab Syndr (Internet). 2009 Jan (cited 2014 Oct 18);1(1):17.
 Murosaki S, Lee TR, Muroyama K, Shin ES, Cho SY, Yamamoto Y, et al. A Combination of Caffeine , Arginine , Soy Isoflavones , and L -Carnitine Enhances Both Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 Cells in Vitro and in KK Mice in Vivo 1. J Nutr. 2007;(April):2252–7.
 Kim YJ, Kim K-Y, Kim MS, Lee JH, Lee KP, Park T. A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia, soy peptide and L: -carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet. Genes Nutr (Internet). 2008 Feb (cited 2015 Jan 1);2(4):353–8.
 Lee M-S, Lee H-J, Lee H-S, Kim Y. L-carnitine stimulates lipolysis via induction of the lipolytic gene expression and suppression of the adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Med Food. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2 Madison Avenue Larchmont, NY 10538 USA; 2006;9(4):468–73.
 Villani RG, Gannon J, Self M, Rich PA. L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobic training does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10(2):199–207.
 Carolina N, Piga A, Pulita F, Pietroselli D, Cellerino R. Storms Treated With L-carnitine and Low to the Editor: Syndrome Following. Am J Med. 2003;115:417–8.
 Benvenga S, Amato A, Calvani M, Trimarchi F. Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action. Ann N Y Acad Sci (Internet). 2004 Nov (cited 2014 Oct 17);1033:158–67.
 Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, Lapa D, Campenni A, Trimarchi F. Usefulness of L -Carnitine, A Naturally Occurring Peripheral Antagonist of Thyroid Hormone Action, in Iatrogenic Hyperthyroidism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(October):3579–94.
 Wang YW, Jones PJH. Conjugated linoleic acid and obesity control: efficacy and mechanisms. Int J Obes. Nature Publishing Group; 2004;28(8):941–55.
 Simon E, Macarulla MT, Fernandez-Quintela A, Rodriguez VM, Portillo MP. Body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid is not due to increased lipolysis. J Physiol Biochem. Springer; 2005;61(2):363–9.
 Tsuboyama-kasaoka N, Takahashi M, Tanemura K, Kim H, Tange T, Okuyama H, et al. Adipose Tissue by Apoptosis and Develops Lipodystrophy in Mice. Diabetes. 2000;49:1534–42.
 Hariri N, Thibault L. High-fat diet-induced obesity in animal models. Nutr Res Rev. 2010;23:270–99.
 Abdullah MM, Xu Z, Pierce GN, Moghadasian MH. The effects of simultaneous administration of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and telmisartan on cardiovascular risks in rats. Lipids. 2007;42:855–64.
 Choi JS, Jung MH, Park HS, Song J. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on insulin resistance and mRNA levels of genes regulating energy metabolism in high-fat-fed rats. Nutrition (Internet). 2004 (cited 2015 Feb 24);20(11-12):1008–17.
 Mingorance C, Duluc L, Chalopin M, Simard G, Ducluzeau P-H, Herrera MD, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity. PLoS One (Internet). 2012 Jan (cited 2015 Jan 1);7(3):e34268.
 Mingorance C, Gonzalez del Pozo M, Dolores Herrera M, Alvarez de Sotomayor M. Oral supplementation of propionyl-l-carnitine reduces body weight and hyperinsulinaemia in obese Zucker rats. Br J Nutr (Internet). 2009 Oct (cited 2014 Oct 18);102(8):1145–53.
 Ishii Y, Ohta T, Sasase T, Morinaga H, Hata T, Miyajima K, et al. A high-fat diet inhibits the progression of diabetes mellitus in type 2 diabetic rats. Nutr Res (Internet). Elsevier Inc.; 2010;30(7):483–91.
 Diniz YS, Santos PP, Assalin HB, Souza G a, Rocha KKHR, Ebaid GMX, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid and cardiac health: oxidative stress and energetic metabolism in standard and sucrose-rich diets. Eur J Pharmacol (Internet). 2008 Jan 28 (cited 2015 Feb 11);579(1-3):318–25.
 Kang JS, Lee WK, Lee CW, Yoon WK, Kim N, Park S-K, et al. Improvement of high-fat diet-induced obesity by a mixture of red grape extract, soy isoflavone and L-carnitine: implications in cardiovascular and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. Food Chem Toxicol (Internet). Elsevier Ltd; 2011 Sep (cited 2015 Jan 1);49(9):2453–8.
 Wu T, Guo A, Shu Q, Qi Y, Kong Y, Sun Z, et al. l-Carnitine intake prevents irregular feeding-induced obesity and lipid metabolism disorder. Gene (Internet). Elsevier B.V.; 2014 Oct 25 (cited 2015 Jan 1);554(2):148–54.