Mechanical, Thermal and Biodegradable Properties of Bioplast-Spruce Green Wood Polymer Composites
Environmental and sustainability concerns push the industries to manufacture alternative materials having less environmental impact. The Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) produced by blending the biopolymers and natural fillers permit not only to tailor the desired properties of materials but also are the solution to meet the environmental and sustainability requirements. This work presents the elaboration and characterization of the fully green WPCs prepared by blending a biopolymer, BIOPLAST® GS 2189 and spruce sawdust used as filler with different amounts. Since both components are bio-based, the resulting material is entirely environmentally friendly. The mechanical, thermal, structural properties of these WPCs were characterized by different analytical methods like tensile, flexural and impact tests, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Their water absorption properties and resistance to the termite and fungal attacks were determined in relation with different wood filler content. The tensile and flexural moduli of WPCs increased with increasing amount of wood fillers into the biopolymer, but WPCs became more brittle compared to the neat polymer. Incorporation of spruce sawdust modified the thermal properties of polymer: The degradation, cold crystallization, and melting temperatures shifted to higher temperatures when spruce sawdust was added into polymer. The termite, fungal and water absorption resistance of WPCs decreased with increasing wood amount in WPCs, but remained in durability class 1 (durable) concerning fungal resistance and quoted 1 (attempted attack) in visual rating regarding to the termites resistance except that the WPC with the highest wood content (30 wt%) rated 2 (slight attack) indicating a long term durability. All the results showed the possibility to elaborate the easy injectable composite materials with adjustable properties by incorporation of BIOPLAST® GS 2189 and spruce sawdust. Therefore, lightweight WPCs allow both to recycle wood industry byproducts and to produce a full ecologic material.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317160Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 520
 J.-F. Gerard, Ed., Fillers and filled polymers, Macromolecular Symposia, Wiley VCH Verlag GmbH, 2001.
 Y.-W. M. a. Z.-Z. Yu, Ed., Polymer nanocomposites, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC, 2006.
 Scott Matteucci, Victor A. Kusuma, Scott D. Kelman, Benny D. Freeman, "Gas transport properties of MgO filled poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) nanocomposites," Polymer, vol. 49, pp. 1659-1675, 2008.
 Sezgin Ersoy and Münir Taşdemir, "Wear Performance of HDPE/ ZnO – SiO2 - CaCO3 – Mg(OH)2 Nano-Filler Polymer Composites," The Online Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, 2017.
 Baltus Cornelius Bonse, and Lucian Mendes Molina, "Effect of calcium carbonate particle size and content on polyamide 6 processing and properties," AIP Conference Proceedings 1779, 030019, 2016.
 Y.W. Leong, M.B. Abu Bakar, Z.A. Mohd Ishak, A. Ariffin, "Characterization of talc/calcium carbonate filled polypropylene hybrid composites weathered in a natural environment," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 83, p. 411–422, 2004.
 J.-Z. Liang, "Tensile, Flow, and Thermal Properties of CaCO3-Filled LDPE/LLDPE Composites," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 104, p. 1692–1696, 2007.
 Xin Dai, Zishou Zhang, Chunyan Chen, Qian Ding, Mei Li, Kancheng Mai, "Mechanical properties improvement of montmorillonite‐filled isotactic polypropylene nanocomposites by β‐modification," Polymer Composites, vol. 38, no. S1, pp. E412-E420, 2017.
 M. B. Abu Bakar, Y. W. Leong, A. Ariffin, Z. A. Mohd. Ishak, "Mechanical, flow, and morphological properties of talc- And kaolin-filled polypropylene hybrid composites," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 104, p. 434–441, 2007.
 S. P. Deshmukh and A. C. Rao, "Mica Filled PVC Composites: Performance Enhancement in Dielectric and Mechanical Properties with Treated/Untreated Mica of Different Particle Size and Different Concentration," Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 169-181, 2012.
 D. M. Bigg, Electrical properties of metal-filled polymer composites in Metal Filled Polymers, Properties and Applications, S. Bhattacharya, Ed., CRC Press, 1986.
 A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, "Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers," Rapra Review Reports 152, vol. 13, no. 8, 2002.
 Kristiina Oksman Niska and Sain Mohini, Eds., Wood-Polymer Composites, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC, 2008.
 R.S. Ramesh, Sadashivappa Kanakuppi, L.S. Sharanaprabhu, "Study of Hardness and Impact Behaviour of Phenol Formaldehyde Based Wood Plastic Composite," International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) NCERAME-Conference Proceedings, p. 167, 2015.
 F. M. V. Mazzanti, "Bending Properties of Wood Flour Filled Polyethylene," Procedia Engineering, vol. 200, p. 68–72, 2017.
 M. B. Abu Bakar, Z. A. Mohd Ishak, R. Mat Taib, H. D. Rozman, S. Mohamad Jani, "Flammability and Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour-Filled Polypropylene Composites," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 116, p. 2714–2722, 2010.
 P.S. Joshi and D.S. Marathe, "Mechanical Properties of Highly Filled PVC/Wood-Flour Composites," Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 29, no. 16, pp. 2522-2533, 2010.
 http://www.biotec-group.de. (Online). Available: http://www.biotec-group.de/160922BroschBioplastGS2189_EN_Web.pdf.
 Ann-Sophie Henriette Kitzler, "Kaskadennutzung von Biopolymeren-Grundlegende Untersuchung zur Entsorgung von Biopolymeren," PhD. Dissertation, Universität Rostock, Rostock, 2012.
 Pedro Teixeira, António Pontes and Elsa Henriques, "Effect of the Injection Moulding Processing Conditions on Biopolymers Final Properties," Materials Science Forum, Vols. 730-732, pp. 20-25, 2012.
 Duarte Almeida, Paulo Peças, Inês Ribeiro, Pedro Teixeira, Elsa Henriques, "Application of Life Cycle Engineering for the Comparison of Biodegradable Polymers Injection Moulding Performance," in Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig, J. Hesselbach and C. Herrmann, Eds., Braunschweig, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.
 Cyril Santos, Artur Mateus, Ausenda Mendes, Cândida Malça, "Processing and Characterization of thin wall and biodegradable injected pots," Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 12, p. 96–105, 2017.
 Vijaya K. Rangari, Rahman Samsur, Shaik Jeelani, "Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Conducting Properties of CNTs/Bio-Degradable Polymer Thin Films," J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 129, p. 1249–1255, 2013.
 Tarig A. Hassan, Vijaya K. Rangari and Shaik Jeelani, "Value-Added Biopolymer Nanocomposites from Waste Eggshell-Based CaCO3 Nanoparticles as Fillers," ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., vol. 2, p. 706−717, 2014.
 C. Santos, A. Mateus, A. Mendes, C. Malça, “Characterization of injected thin walls parts made of biodegradable polymers,” in European Advanced Materials Congress, Stockholm-Helsinki, DOI:10.5185/eamc.2016, 2016.
 R. Rothon, Particulate Fillers for Polymers, vol. 12, Rapra Review Reports, Reports 141, 2002, p. 10.
 Christopher DeArmitt and Roger Rothon, "Particulate Fillers, Selection, and Use in Polymer Composites," in Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series, P. Sanjay, Ed., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2016, p. 1.
 I. Halikia, L. Zoumpoulakis, E. Christodoulou, D. Prattis, "Kinetic study of the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate by isothermal methods of analysis," The European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 89-102, 2001.
 Julián David Velásquez Herrera, Juan Carlos Lucas Aguirre and Víctor Dumar Quintero Castaño, "Physical-chemical characteristics determination of potato (Solanum phureja Juz. & Bukasov) starch," Acta Agronómica, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 323-330, 2017.
 Shanshan Lv, Jiyou Gu, Haiyan Tan, Yanhua Zhang, "The morphology, rheological, and mechanical properties of woodflour/starch/poly(lactic acid) blends," J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 134, p. 44743, 2017.
 D. W. Haines, J. M. Leban, C. Herbe, "Determination of Young's modulus for spruce, fir and isotropic materials by the resonance flexure method withcomparisons to static flexure and other dynamic methods," Wood Science and Technology, vol. 30, pp. 253-263, 1996.
 P. Dumond and N. Baddour, "Mechanical Property relationships in Sitka Spruce Soundboard Wood," International Symposium on Musical Acoustics - Le Mans, France, 2014.
 I. Połec´, P.J. Hine, M.J. Bonner, I.M. Ward, D.C.Barton, "Die drawn wood polymer composites. II. Micromechanical modelling of tensile modulus," Composite Science and Technology, vol. 70, pp. 53-60, 2010.
 M. Poletto, "Mechanical, Dynamic Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Composites Based on Recycled Polystyrene Filled with Wood Flour Wastes," Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 433 - 442, 2017.
 Eva Sykacek, Wolfgang Schlager, Norbert Mundigler, "Compatibility of Softwood Sawdust and Commercial Biopolymers in Injection Molding," Polymer Composites, vol. 31, no. 3, p. 443–451, 2010.
 Wood handbook—Wood as an engineering material, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-190,, Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory., 2010.
 M. R. Rahman, S. Hamdan, M. S. Islam, and A. S. Ahmed, "Influence of Nanoclay/Phenol Formaldehyde Resin on Wood Polymer Nanocomposites," J. Appl. Sci., vol. 12, no. 14, p. 1481–1487, 2012.
 Mhd. Mazen Altayan, Tammam Al Darouich, Francois Karabet, "On the Plasticization Process of Potato Starch:Preparation and Characterization," Food Biophysics, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 397–403, 2017.
 Ewa Bidzińska, Marek Michalec and Dominika Pawcenis, "Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution," Magn. Reson. Chem., vol. 53, p. 1051–1056, 2015.
 Aji P. Mathew, Kristiina Oksman, Mohini Sain, "Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Composites from Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) and Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC)," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 97, no. 10.1002/app.21779, p. 2014–2025, 2005.
 E Y Gómez-Pachón, R Vera-Graziano, R Montiel Campos, "Structure of poly(lactic-acid) PLA nanofibers scaffolds prepared by electrospinning," IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 59, p. 012003, 2014.
 A. Dutta, "On viscosity - melt flow index relationship," Rheologica Acta, vol. 23, no. 5, p. 989, 1984.
 A. V. Shenoy, D. R. Saini, "Melt Flow Index: More than Just a Quality Control Rheological Parameter. Part I," Advances in Polymer Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-58, 1986.
 Huiyuan Li, Kunlin Song, Dingguo Zhou, Qinglin Wu, "Effect of Durability Treatment on Moisture Sorption Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites," BioResources, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 6397-6407, 2014.
 Hatem Mrada, Sébastien Alix, Sébastien Migneault, Ahmed Koubaa, Patrick Perré, "Numerical and experimental assessment of water absorption of wood-polymer composites," Measurement, vol. 115, p. 197–203, 2018.
 Hua Wang, Xiuzhi Sun, Paul Seib, "Strengthening Blends of Poly(lactic acid) and Starch with Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 82, p. 1761–1767, 2001.
 Tiina Huuhilo, Ossi Martikka, Svetlana Butylina, Tima Karki, "Impact of Mineral Fillers to the Moisture Resistance of Wood-Plastic Composites," Baltik Foresty 16, No1(30) (2010) p.126, vol. 16, no. 1(30), p. 126, 2010.