Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30127
The Valuable Triad of Adipokine Indices to Differentiate Pediatric Obesity from Metabolic Syndrome: Chemerin, Progranulin, Vaspin
Abstract:Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this study, associations between adipokines and adipokine as well as obesity indices were evaluated. Plasma adipokine levels may exhibit variations according to body adipose tissue mass. Besides, upon consideration of obesity as an inflammatory disease, adipokines may play some roles in this process. The ratios of proinflammatory adipokines to adiponectin may act as highly sensitive indicators of body adipokine status. The aim of the study is to present some adipokine indices, which are thought to be helpful for the evaluation of childhood obesity and also to determine the best discriminators in the diagnosis of MetS. 80 prepubertal children (aged between 6-9.5 years) included in the study were divided into three groups; 30 children with normal weight (NW), 25 morbid obese (MO) children and 25 MO children with MetS. Physical examinations were performed. Written informed consent forms were obtained from the parents. The study protocol was approved by Ethics Committee of Namik Kemal University Medical Faculty. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, waist circumference (C), hip C, head C, neck C were recorded. Values for body mass index (BMI), diagnostic obesity notation model assessment Index-II (D2 index) as well as waist-to-hip, head-to-neck ratios were calculated. Adiponectin, resistin, leptin, chemerin, vaspin, progranulin assays were performed by ELISA. Adipokine-to-adiponectin ratios were obtained. SPSS Version 20 was used for the evaluation of data. p values ≤ 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Values of BMI and D2 index, waist-to-hip, head-to-neck ratios did not differ between MO and MetS groups (p ≥ 0.05). Except progranulin (p ≤ 0.01), similar patterns were observed for plasma levels of each adipokine. There was not any difference in vaspin as well as resistin levels between NW and MO groups. Significantly increased leptin-to-adiponectin, chemerin-to-adiponectin and vaspin-to-adiponectin values were noted in MO in comparison with those of NW. The most valuable adipokine index was progranulin-to-adiponectin (p ≤ 0.01). This index was strongly correlated with vaspin-to-adiponectin ratio in all groups (p ≤ 0.05). There was no correlation between vaspin-to-adiponectin and chemerin-to--adiponectin in NW group. However, a correlation existed in MO group (r = 0.486; p ≤ 0.05). Much stronger correlation (r = 0.609; p ≤ 0.01) was observed in MetS group between these two adipokine indices. No correlations were detected between vaspin and progranulin as well as vaspin and chemerin levels. Correlation analyses showed a unique profile confined to MetS children. Adiponectin was found to be correlated with waist-to-hip (r = -0.435; p ≤ 0.05) as well as head-to-neck (r = 0.541; p ≤ 0.05) ratios only in MetS children. In this study, it has been investigated if adipokine indices have priority over adipokine levels. In conclusion, vaspin-to-adiponectin, progranulin-to-adiponectin, chemerin-to-adiponectin along with waist-to-hip and head-to-neck ratios were the optimal combinations. Adiponectin, waist-to-hip, head-to-neck, vaspin-to-adiponectin, chemerin-to-adiponectin ratios had appropriate discriminatory capability for MetS children.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317158Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 284
 J. Daxer, T. Herttrich, Y. Y. Zhao, M. Vogel, A. Hiemisch, K. Scheuermann, et al., “Nocturnal levels of chemerin and progranulin in adolescents: influence of sex, body mass index, glucose metabolism and sleep,” J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 57-61, Jan 2017.
 R. M. Mantovani, N. P. Rocha, D. M. Magalhães, I. G. Barbosa, A. L. Teixeira, E. Simões, et al., “Early changes in adipokines from overweight to obesity in children and adolescents,” J. Pediatr. (Rio J.), vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 624-630, Nov–Dec. 2016.
 Z. Maghsoudi, R. Kelishadi, and M. J. Hosseinzadeh-Attar, “The comparison of chemerin, adiponectin and lipid profile indices in obese and non-obese adolescents,” Diabetes Metab. Syndr., vol. 10, no. 2 (Suppl 1), pp. S43-S46, Apr-Jun. 2016.
 K. Gasbarrino, C. Mantzoros, J. Gorgui, J. P. Veinot, C. Lai, and S. S. Daskalopoulou, “Circulating chemerin is associated with carotid plaque instability, whereas resistin is related to cerebrovascular symptomatology,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., vol. 36, no. 8, pp.1670-1678, Aug. 2016.
 F. Carbone, F. Burger, G. Roversi, C. Tamborino, I. Casetta, S. Seraceni, et al., “Leptin/adiponectin ratio predicts poststroke neurological outcome,” Eur. J. Clin. Invest., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1184-1191, Nov. 2015.
 F. Eichelmann, C. Weikert, R. di Giuseppe, R. Biemann, B. Isermann, M. B. Schulze, et al., “Methodological utility of chemerin as a novel biomarker of immunity and metabolism,” Endocr. Connect., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 340-347, Jul. 2017.
 G. Zhang, M. Xiao, L. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and Q. Yang Q, “Association of serum chemerin concentrations with the presence of atrial fibrillation,” Ann. Clin. Biochem., vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 342-347, May 2017.
 B. Lu, M. Zhao, W. Jiang, J. Ma, C. Yang, J. Shao, et al., “Independent association of circulating level of chemerin with functional and early morphological vascular changes in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients,” Medicine (Baltimore)., vol. 94, no. 47, pp. e1990, Nov. 2015.
 P. Gu, M. Cheng, X Hui, B. Lu, W. Jiang, and Z. Shi, “Elevating circulation chemerin level is associated with endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerotic changes in essential hypertensive patients,” J. Hypertens., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1624-1632, Aug. 2015.
 H. Y. Shin, S. Park, and J. W. Lee, “Positive association between the changes in chemerin and adiponectin levels after weight reduction,” Endocr. Res., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 287-295, Nov. 2017.
 L. Xu, B. Zhou, H. Li, J Liu, J. Du, W. Zang, et al., “Serum levels of progranulin are closely associated with microvascular complication in type 2 diabetes,” Dis. Markers., vol. 2015, pp. 357279, 2015.
 S. Moradi, K. Mirzaei, A. A. Abdurahman, S. A. Keshavarz, and A. Hossein-Nezhad, “Mediatory effect of circulating vaspin on resting metabolic rate in obese individuals,” Eur. J. Nutr., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1297-1305, Apr. 2016.
 F. Hao, H. Zhang, J. Zhu, H. Kuang, Q Yu, M. Bai,et al., “Association between vaspin level and coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., vol. 113, pp. 26-32, Mar. 2016.
 World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Child Growth Standarts. Available at: http:// www.who.int /childgrowth/en/. Accessed on June 10, 2016.
 P. Zimmet, K. G. Alberti, F. Kaufman, N. Tajima, M. Silink, S. Arslanian, G. Wong, P. Bennett, J. Shaw, S. Caprio, and IDF consensus group, “The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents-an IDF consensus report”, Pediatr. Diabetes, vol: 8, no.5, pp. 299-306, Oct. 2007.
 O. Donma, M. M. Donma, M. Demirkol, M. Aydın, T. Gokkus, B. Nalbanoglu, A. Nalbantoglu, and B. Topcu, “Laboratory indices in late childhood obesity: The importance of DONMA indices,” Int J Med Health Biomed Bioeng Pharmaceutical Eng, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 280-286, May 2016.
 R. Hou, M. Garner, C. Holmes, C. Osmond, J. Teeling, L. Lau, et al., “Peripheral inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: Case-controlled study,” Brain Behav. Immun., vol. 62, pp. 212-218, May 2017.
 A. B. Acharya, S. Thakur, M. V. Muddapur, and R. D. Kulkarni, “Cytokine ratios in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Metab. Syndr., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 277-278, Oct – Dec. 2017.
 H. C. Lin, and J. Y. Lin, “Immune cell-conditioned media suppress prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth correlating with decreased proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in the media using 5 selected crude polysaccharides,” Integr. Cancer Ther., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. NP13-NP25, Dec. 2016.
 S. Biswas, P. K. Ghoshal, S. C. Mandal, and N. Mandal, “Relation of anti- to pro-inflammatory cytokine ratios with acute myocardial infarction,” Korean J. Intern. Med., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 44-50, Mar. 2010.
 C. Bravo, L. R. Cataldo, J. Galgani, J. Parada, and J. L. Santos, “Leptin/adiponectin ratios using either total or high-molecular-weight adiponectin as biomarkers of systemic insulin sensitivity in normoglycemic women,” J. Diabetes Res., vol. 2017, pp. 9031079, 2017.
 I. Aldhood-Hainerova, H. Zamrazilova, Hill M, and Hainer V, “Insulin sensitivity and its relation to hormones in adolescent boys and girls,” Metabolism, vol. 67, pp. 90-98, 2017.
 D. R. Kang, D. Yadav, S. B. Koh, J. Y. Kim, and S. V. Ahn, “Impact of serum leptin to adiponectin ratio on regression of metabolic syndrome in high-risk individuals: The ARIRANG Study,” Yonsei Med. J., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 339-346, Mar. 2017.
 N. G. Gumanova, N. E. Gavrilova, O. I. Chernushevich, A. Y. Kots, and V. A. Metelskaya, “Ratios of leptin to insulin and adiponectin to endothelin are sex-dependently associated with extent of coronary atherosclerosis,” Biomarkers, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 239-245, May-Jun. 2017.
 P. Singh, M. G. Sridhar, M. Rajappa, J. Balachander, and T. Kadhiravan, “Adiponectin-resistin index and its strong association with acute coronary syndrome in South Indian men,” Inflamm. Res., vol.63, pp. 961-968, 2014.
 S. Sarray, S. Madan, L. R. Saleh, N. Mahmoud, and W. Y. Almawi, “Validity of adiponectin-to-leptin and adiponectin-to-resistin ratios as predictors of polycystic ovary syndrome,” Fertil. Steril., vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 460-466, Aug. 2015.
 B. Pangaribuan, I. Yusuf, M. Mansyur, and A. Wijaya, “Serum adiponectin and resistin in relation to insulin resistance and markers of hyperandrogenism in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Ther. Adv. Endocrinol. Metab., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 235-245, 2011.