A Prevalence of Phonological Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment
Phonological disorder is a serious and disturbing issue to many parents and teachers. Efforts towards resolving the problem have been undermined by other specific disabilities which were hidden to many regular and special education teachers. It is against this background that this study was motivated to provide data on the prevalence of phonological disorders in children with specific language impairment (CWSLI) as the first step towards critical intervention. The study was a survey of 15 CWSLI from St. Louise Inclusive schools, Ikot Ekpene in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Phonological Processes Diagnostic Scale (PPDS) with 17 short sentences, which cut across the five phonological processes that were examined, were validated by experts in test measurement, phonology and special education. The respondents were made to read the sentences with emphasis on the targeted sounds. Their utterances were recorded and analyzed in the language laboratory using Praat Software. Data were also collected through friendly interactions at different times from the clients. The theory of generative phonology was adopted for the descriptive analysis of the phonological processes. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and composite bar chart for better understanding of the result. The study found out that CWSLI exhibited the five phonological processes under investigation. It was revealed that 66.7%, 80%, 73.3%, 80%, and 86.7% of the respondents have severe deficit in fricative stopping, velar fronting, liquid gliding, final consonant deletion and cluster reduction, respectively. It was therefore recommended that a nationwide survey should be carried out to have national statistics of CWSLI with phonological deficits and develop intervention strategies for effective therapy to remediate the disorder.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317144Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 578
 America Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental Disorders. 4th ed. text revised. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
 Ball, M. J. (2016). Principles of clinical phonology: Theoretical approaches. New York: Routledge.
 Belsky, J. (2010). Experiencing the lifespan. New York: Worth Publishers.
 Clark, & Eve, V. (2003). First language acquisition. UK: Cambridge University.
 Clark & Kamhi (2010) in Bowen, C. (2015). Children’s speech sound disorders. Oxford: WILEY & Sons Ltd West Sussex.
 Hanks, H. (2013). What are phonological processes? From: www.academicedu.com retrieved: September, 2017.
 Merkel – Piccini, R. (2001). Phonological processes. Super Duper Online Publications. www.superduper.com. Retrieved: August, 2017
 Nicolielo, A.P., & Rocha, S. (2014). Phonological processing in subjects with specific language impairment. Revista: CEFAC
 Kelman, M. E. (2007). Expressive phonological impairment and the development of literacy. PhD Dissertation. Wichita State University
 Leonard, L. B. (1998). Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge: Mass: MIT Press
 Leonard, L. B. (2000). Theories of language learning and children with Specific Language Impairment. New York: Plenum publishers.
 Radford, A., Atkinson, Britain, & Clahsen, Spencer, (1999). Linguistics: An introduction. Cambridge: University Press, Cambridge.
 Ramus, F., Marshall, C. R., Rosen, S., Van der Lely, H. K. J. (2013). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: Towards a multidimensional mode. Journal of Neurology 136, (2) 36-39.
 Savage, K. (2009). Specific language impairment. Generative syntax application. W & M Syntax wiki
 Spivey, B. L. (2012). What are phonological disorders? Can they be corrected? Handy handouts.com. Super Duper publications. Retrieved on June, 2017.
 Wagner, R. K, Torgesen, J.K & Rashotte, C.A. (1999). Comprehensive test of phonological processing. Online publication.