Water and Beverage Consumption among Children and Adolescents in Tehran Metropolitan City of Iran
Introduction: Adequate hydration is necessary for proper physical and mental function. The aim of this study is to determine the consumption of water and all other beverages in children (8-13 years) and adolescents (14-17 years) in Tehran metropolitan city of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 455 children (8-13 years) and 334 adolescents (14-17 years) were retrieved from north, center, and south of Tehran (18 schools). Instrument for data collection consisted of a “demographic and general health” questionnaire and a “7-day fluid record”. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 16 software. Results: The mean total consumption of fluids in school children was 1302 ± 500.6 ml/day. The highest mean intakes were observed for water (666 ± 398 ml/day), followed by milk (239 ± 183 ml/day), regular soft beverages (RSB) (188 ± 148 ml/day), and juices (60 ± 74 ml/day). Water, hot drinks (mainly tea) and soft drinks intake was significantly more in boys than girls. A significantly lower intake of milk and a higher intake of RSB and hot beverages (mainly tea) have been seen among adolescents compared to children. Conclusion: The most important finding is that mean fluid intake of children and adolescents does not meet international adequate intake references for water and fluids. This finding may suggest the necessity of development of the local references. To improve fluid intake habits of children and adolescents, relevant policy making and actions are warranted.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317118Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 541
 Popkin BM, D'Anci KE, Rosenberg IH. Water, hydration, and health. Nutrition Reviews. 2010;68(8):439-58.
 Stein AD, Shea S, Basch CE, Contento IR, Zybert P. Assessing changes in nutrient intakes of preschool children: comparison of 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency methods. Epidemiology. 1994:109-15.
 Edmonds CJ, Burford D. Should children drink more water?: The effects of drinking water on cognition in children. Appetite. 2009;52(3):776-9.
 Edmonds CJ, Jeffes B. Does having a drink help you think? 6–7-Year-old children show improvements in cognitive performance from baseline to test after having a drink of water. Appetite. 2009;53(3):469-72.
 Guideline: WHO. sugar intake for adults and children , Geneva. (2015).
 Te Morenga L, Mallard S, Mann J. Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. 2013;346:e7492.
 Moynihan P, Kelly S. Effect on caries of restricting sugars intake systematic review to inform WHO guidelines. Journal of Dental Research. 2014;93(1):8-18.
 Iglesia I, Guelinckx I, De Miguel- Etayo PM, Gonzalez-Gil EM, Salas-Salvado J, Kavouras SA, et al. Total fluid intake of children and adolescents: cross- sectional surveys in 13 countries worldwide. European journal of nutrition. 2015; 54 (2):57-67.
 Agostoni C, Bresson J, Fairweather-Tait S. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for water. EFSA J. 2010;8(3).
 http://www.who.int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/.Accessed October 14, 2017.
 De Onis M OA, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, et al. . Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2007);85: 660–7.
 Lennon M, Whelton H, O’Mullane D, Ekstrand J. Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. World Health. 2004.
 Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Constant F. Water and beverage consumption among children age 4–13y in the United States: analyses of 2005–2010 NHANES data. Nutr J. 2013;12(1):85.
 Bellisle F, Thornton S, Hébel P, Denizeau M, Tahiri M. A study of fluid intake from beverages in a sample of healthy French children, adolescents and adults. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2010;64(4):350-5.
 Guelinckx I, Iglesia I, Bottin J, De Miguel-Etayo P, Gonzalez-Gil E, Salas-Salvadó J, et al. Intake of water and beverages of children and adolescents in 13 countries. European journal of nutrition. 2015;54(2):69-79.
 Kant AK, Graubard BI. Contributors of water intake in US children and adolescents: associations with dietary and meal characteristics—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2010;92(4):887-96.
 Feferbaum R, de Abreu LC, Leone C. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):1.
 Gandy J. First Findings of the United Kingdom Fluid Intake Study. Nutr Today. 2012;47:S14-S6.
 Duffey KJ, Huybrechts I, Mouratidou T, Libuda L, Kersting M, De Vriendt T, et al. Beverage consumption among European adolescents in the HELENA study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(2):244-52.
 Barquera S, Hernandez-Barrera L, Tolentino ML, Espinosa J, Ng SW, Rivera JA, et al. Energy intake from beverages is increasing among Mexican adolescents and adults. The Journal of nutrition. 2008;138(12):2454-61.