Variable Responses of Leaf C, N and P to Climatic Factors in Different Regions and Growth Forms
Authors: Li Wu
Plant ecological stoichiometry, which is one of the most important tools to connect the components among different levels of ecosystem, has obtained increasingly extensive concern, especially on its responses to the environmental gradients. Based on the published literatures and datasets, this article focused on reviewing the variable responses of plant foliar ecological stoichiometry to the climatic factors, such as temperature, water, elevated CO2, and found that foliar ecological stoichiometry responded dynamically to climatic variations among different regions and different growth forms. Then, research status and deficiency were summarized and the expectation on studying the relationships between plant C, N and P ecological stoichiometry and environmental variations which can provide a reference to understand how plants will respond to global change in the future was pointed out.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316867Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 434
 Sterner, R. W. and J. J. Elser. Ecological Stoichiometry: The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Bioshpere. NJ, USA, Princeton University Press, 2002.
 Elser, J. J., D. DR, et al. "Organism size, life history, and N: P stoichiometry." Bioscience, vol.46, pp.674-684, Oct.1996.
 Elser, J. J., W. F. Fagan, et al. "Nutritional constraints in terrestrial and freshwater food webs." Nature, vol.408, no.6812, pp.578-580, 2000.
 Elser, J. J., P. Frost, et al. "Effects of light and nutrients on plankton stoichiometry and biomass in a P-limited lake." Hydrobiologia, vol.481, no.1-3, pp.101-112, Aug.2002.
 Elser, J. J., M. Kyle, et al. "Nutrient availability and phytoplankton nutrient limitation across a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition." Ecology, vol.90, no.11, pp.3062-3073, Nov.2009.
 Reich, P. B., B. A. Hungate, et al. "Carbon-nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide." Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol.37, pp.611-636, Aug.2006.
 Karadaş, C. and D. Kara. "Chemometric approach to evaluate trace metal concentrations in some spices and herbs." Food Chemistry, vol.130, no.1, pp.196-202, Jan.2012.
 Qiu, L., X. Wei, et al. "Nutrient stoichiometry of three plant species under a natural nutrient gradient of a semiarid small watershed." Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B–Soil & Plant Science, vol.63, no.3, pp.231-240, Nov.2012.
 Chapin III, S., P. A. Matson, et al. “Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology”, Springer New York, 2002.
 Güsewell, S. and W. Koerselman. "Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of wetland plants." Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol.5, no.1, pp.37-61, 2002.
 Huang, W., G. Zhou, et al. "Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition on foliar stoichiometry of nitrogen and phosphorus of five tree species in subtropical model forest ecosystems." Environmental Pollution, 168, pp.113-120, 2012.
 Chen, Y., W. Han, et al. "Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of woody plants differ in responses to climate, soil and plant growth form." Ecography, vol.36, no.2, pp.178-184, 2013.
 Hong, J. T., J. B. Wu, et al. "Effects of global climate change on the C, N, and P stocihiometry of terrestrial plants." Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.24, no.9, pp.2658-2665, 2013.
 Wright, I. J., P. B. Reich, et al. "Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate." Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.14. no.5, pp.411-421, 2005.
 Reich, P. B. and J. Oleksyn. "Global patterns of plant leaf N and P in relation to temperature and latitude." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.101, no.30, pp.11001-11006, 2004.
 Elser, J. J., W. F. Fagan, et al. "Biological stoichiometry of plant production: metabolism, scaling and ecological response to global change." New Phytologist, vol.186, no.3, pp.593-608, 2010.
 Sardans, J. and J. Peñuelas. "The Role of Plants in the Effects of Global Change on Nutrient Availability and Stoichiometry in the Plant-Soil System." Plant Physiology, vol.160, no.4, pp.1741-1761, 2012.
 Ren, S. J., G. R. Yu, et al. "Spatial patterns for variations in leaf nutrient contents of Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.)." Acta Ecologica Sinica, vol.29, no.4, pp.1899-1906, 2009.
 Yang, K., J. H. Huang, et al. "Canopy leaf N and P stoichiometry in grassland communities of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China." Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, vol.34, no.1, pp.17-22, 2010.
 Sardans, J. and J. Peñuelas. "Tree growth changes with climate and forest type are associated with relative allocation of nutrients, especially phosphorus, to leaves and wood." Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.22, no.4, pp.494-507, 2013.
 He, J. S., D. F. B. Flynn, et al. "CO2 and nitrogen, but not population density, alter the size and C/N ratio of Phytolacca americana seeds." Functional Ecology, vol.19, no.3, pp.437-444, 2005.
 Novotny, A. M., J. D. Schade, et al. "Stoichiometric response of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing dicots to manipulations of CO2, nitrogen, and diversity." Oecologia, vol.151, no.4, pp.687-696, 2006.
 Zhao, Y. S. and X. Hou. "Foliar stoichiometry under different mycorrhizal types in relation to temperature and precipitation in grassland." Journal of Plant Ecology, vol.6, no.4, pp.270-276, 2012.
 Cotrufo, M. F., I. Phil, et al. "Elevated CO2 reduces the nitrogen concentration of plant tissues." Global Change Biology, no.4, pp.43-54, 1998.
 An, Y., S. Wan, et al. "Plant nitrogen concentration, use efficiency, and contents in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem under experimental warming." Global Change Biology, vol.11, no.10, pp.1733-1744, 2005.
 Esmeijer-Liu, A. J., R. Aerts, et al. "Nitrogen enrichment lowers Betula pendula green and yellow leaf stoichiometry irrespective of effects of elevated carbon dioxide." Plant and Soil, vol.316, no.1-2, pp.311-322, 2008.
 Stevens, C. J., C. Duprè, et al. "The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe." Environmental Pollution, vol.159, no.10, pp.2243-2250, 2011.
 Yang, Y. H., Y. Q. Luo, et al. "Terrestrial C: N stoichiometry in response to elevated CO2 and N addition: a synthesis of two meta-analyses." Plant and Soil, vol.343, no.1-2, pp.393-400, 2011.
 Reich, P. B., J. Oleksyn, et al. "Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis–nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species." Oecologia, vol.160, no.2, pp.207-212, 2009.
 Dijkstra, F. A., E. Pendall, et al. "Climate change alters stoichiometry of phosphorus and nitrogen in a semiarid grassland." New Phytologist, vol.196, pp.807-815, 2012.
 Kerkhoff, A. J., B. J. Enquist, et al. "Plant allometry, stoichiometry and the temperature-dependence of primary productivity." Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.14, no.6, pp.585-598, 2005.
 He, J.-S., J. Fang, et al. "Stoichiometry and large-scale patterns of leaf carbon and nitrogen in the grassland biomes of China." Oecologia, vol.149, no.1, pp.115-122, 2006.
 Zheng, S. X., P. Zhou, et al. "Spatial patterns of leaf nutrient traits of the plants in the Loess Plateau of China." Trees, vol.21, no.3, pp.357-370, 2007.
 Aerts, R., T. V. Callaghan, et al. "Seasonal climate manipulations result in species-specific changes in leaf nutrient levels and isotopic composition in a sub-arctic bog." Functional Ecology, vol.23, no.4, pp.680-688, 2009.
 Li, Y. L., W. Mao, et al. "Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in typical desert and desertified regions, north China." Environmental Science, vol.31, no.8, pp.1716-1725, 2010.
 Ordoñez, J. C., P. M. van Bodegom, et al. "A global study of relationships between leaf traits, climate and soil measures of nutrient fertility." Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.18, no.2, pp.137-149, 2009.
 Tjoelker, M. G., P. B. Reich, et al. "Changes in leaf nitrogen and carbohydrates underlie temperature and CO2 acclimation of dark respiration in five boreal tree species." Plant, Cell and Environment, no.22, pp.767-778, 1999.
 Hudson, J. M. G., G. H. R. Henry, et al. "Taller and larger: shifts in Arctic tundra leaf traits after 16 years of experimental warming." Global Change Biology, vol.17, no.2, pp.1013-1021, 2011.
 Sardans, J., A. Rivas-Ubach, et al. "The C: N: P stoichiometry of organisms and ecosystems in a changing world: a review and perspectives." Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol.14, no.1, pp.33-47, 2012.
 Lovelock, C., I. Feller, et al. "Testing the growth rate vs. geochemical hypothesis for latitudinal variation in plant nutrients." Ecology Letters, vol.10, no.12, pp.1154-1163, 2007.
 Aerts, R. "Climate, leaf litter chemistry and leaf litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems: a triangular relationship." OIKOS, vol.79, no.3, pp.439-449, 1997.
 Liu, C., B. Berg, et al. "Leaf litter nitrogen concentration as related to climatic factors in Eurasian forests." Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.15, no.5, pp.438-444, 2006.
 Kang, H., H. Zhuang, et al. "Variation in leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in Picea abies across Europe: An analysis based on local observations." Forest Ecology and Management, vol.261, no.2, pp.195-202, 2011.
 Britton, A. and J. Fisher. "NP stoichiometry of low-alpine heathland: Usefulness for bio-monitoring and prediction of pollution impacts." Biological Conservation, vol.138, no.1-2, pp.100-108, 2007.
 Luomala, E.-M., K. Laitinen, et al. "Stomatal density, anatomy and nutrient concentrations of Scots pine needles are affected by elevated CO2 and temperature." Plant, Cell and Environment, no.28, pp.733-749, 2005.
 Han, W. X., J. Y. Fang, et al. "Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry across 753 terrestrial plant species in China." New Phytologist, vol.168, no.2, pp.377-385, 2005.
 Ren, S. J., G. R. Yu, et al. "Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry across 654 terrestrial plant species in NSTEC." Environmental Science, vol.28, no.12, pp.2665-2672, 2007.
 Wu, T., G. G. Wang, et al. "Patterns of leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry among Quercus acutissima provenances across China." Ecological Complexity, vol.17, no.1, pp.32-39, 2014.
 Sardans, J., J. Peñuelas, et al. "Drought and warming induced changes in P and K concentration and accumulation in plant biomass and soil in a Mediterranean shrubland." Plant and Soil, vol.306, no.1-2, pp.261-271, 2008.
 Sardans, J., J. Peñuelas, et al. "Warming and drought alter C and N concentration, allocation and accumulation in a Mediterranean shrubland." Global Change Biology, vol.14, no.10, pp.2304-2316, 2008.
 Sardans, J., A. Rivas-Ubach, et al. "Factors affecting nutrient concentration and stoichiometry of forest trees in Catalonia (NE Spain)." Forest Ecology and Management, vol.262, no.11, pp.2024-2034, 2011.
 Sardans, J., A. Rivas-Ubach, et al. "Field-simulated droughts affect elemental leaf stoichiometry in Mediterranean forests and shrublands." Acta Oecologica, vol.50, pp.20-31, 2013.
 Lewis, J., M. Lucash, et al. "Relationships between needle nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic responses of Douglas-fir seedlings to elevated CO2 and temperature." New Phytologist, vol.162, no.2, pp.355-364, 2004.
 Day, T. A., C. T. Ruhland, et al. "Warming increases aboveground plant biomass and C stocks in vascular-plant-dominated Antarctic tundra." Global Change Biology, vol.14, no.8, pp.1827-1843, 2008.
 Norby, R. J., T. M. Long, et al. "Nitrogen resorption in senescing tree leaves in a warmer, CO2-enriched atmosphere." Plant and Soil, vol.224, no.1, pp.15-29, 2000.
 Craine, J. and W. Lee. "Covariation in leaf and root traits for native and non-native grasses along an altitudinal gradient in New Zealand." Oecologia, vol.134, no.4, pp.471-478, 2003.
 Gotelli, N. J., P. J. Mouser, et al. "Geographic variation in nutrient availability, stoichiometry, and metal concentrations of plants and pore-water in ombrotrophic bogs in New England, USA." WETLANDS, vol.28, no.3, pp.827-840, 2008.
 Arft, A., M. Walker, et al. "Responses of tundra plants to experimental warming: meta-analysis of the international tundra experiment." Ecological monographs, vol.69, no.4, pp.491-511, 1999.
 Hobbie, E. A., D. M. Olszyk, et al. "Foliar nitrogen concentration and antural abundance of N-15 suggest nitrogen allocation patterns of Douglas-fir and mycorrhizal fungi during development in elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature." Tree Physiology, vol.21, no.15, pp.1113-1122, 2001.
 Aerts,R., J. Cornelissen, et al. "Climate change has only a minor impact on nutrient resorption parameters in a high-latitude peatland." Oecologia, vol.151, no.1, pp.132-139, 2007.
 Lü, X.-T., D.-L. Kong, et al. "Nitrogen and water availability interact to affect leaf stoichiometry in a semi-arid grassland." Oecologia, vol.168, no.2, pp.301-310, 2011.
 Aerts, R., B. Wallen, et al. "Growth-limiting nutrients in Sphagnum-dominated bogs subject to low and high atmospheric nitrogen supply." Journal of ecology, vol.80, pp.131-140, 1992.
 Adame, M. F., B. Virdis, et al. "Effect of geomorphological setting and rainfall on nutrient exchange in mangroves during tidal inundation." Marine and Freshwater Research, vol.61, no.10, pp.1197-1206, 2010.
 Sardans, J. and J. Peñuelas. "Drought-Induced Changes in C and N Stoichiometry in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean Forest." Forest Science, vol.54, no.5, pp.513-522, 2008.
 Sardans, J. and J. Peñuelas. "Drought changes nutrient sources, content and stoichiometry in the bryophyte Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. growing in a Mediterranean forest." Journal of Bryology, vol.30, no.1, pp.59-65, 2008.
 Lu, Y., B. Duan, et al. "Intraspecific variation in drought response of Populus cathayana grown under ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation." Annals of Forest Science, vol.66, no.6, pp.613-613, 2009.
 Sardans, J. and J. Peñuelas. "Soil enzyme activity in a Mediterranean forest after six years of drought." Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.74, no.3, pp.838, 2010.
 Liao, J., Z. Hou, et al. "Effects of elevated CO2 and drought on chemical composition and decomposition of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)." Functional Plant Biology, vol.29, pp.891-897, 2002.
 Alvarez, M., D. Huygens, et al. "Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities." Physiologia Plantarum, vol.136, no.4, pp.426-436, 2009.
 Gonzalez-Dugo, V., J.-L. Durand, et al. "Water deficit and nitrogen nutrition of crops. A review." Agronomy for sustainable development, vol.30, no.3, pp.529-544, 2010.
 Sardans, J., J. Peñuelas, et al. "Experimental drought reduced acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and increased organic extra Tab. P in soil in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest." European Journal of Soil Biology, vol.44, no.5-6, pp.509-520, 2008.
 Sardans, J. and J. Peñuelas. "Drought changes phosphorus and potassium accumulation patterns in an evergreen Mediterranean forest." Functional Ecology, vol.21, no.2, pp.191-201, 2007.
 Wright, I. J., P. Reich, et al. "Strategy shifts in leaf physiology, structure and nutrient content between species of high- and low- rainfall and high- and low- nutrient habitats." Functional Ecology, vol.15, no.4, pp.423-434, 2001.
 Sardans, J. and J. Peñuelas. "Increasing drought decreases phosphorus availability in an evergreen Mediterranean forest." Plant and Soil, vol.267, no.1-2, pp.367-377, 2004.
 Hungate, B. A., J. S. Dukes, et al. "Nitrogen and climate change." Science, vol.302, no.5650, pp.1512-1513, 2003.
 Peñuelas, J. and R. Matamala. "Changes in N and S leaf content, stomatal density and specific leaf area of 14 plant species during the last three centuries of CO2 increase." Journal of Experimental Botany, vol.41, no.9, pp.1119-1124, 1990.
 Billings, S. A., S. F. Zitzer, et al. "Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on green leaf tissue and leaf litter quality in an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem." Global Change Biology, vol.9, no.5, pp.729-735. (2003).
 Henry, H. A. L., E. E. Cleland, et al. "Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition and climate change on plant litter quality in a California annual grassland." Oecologia, vol.142, no.3, pp.465-473, 2004.
 Finzi, A. C., A. S. Allen, et al. "Forest litter production, chemistry, and decomposition following two years of free-air CO2 enrichment." Ecology, vol.82, no.2, pp.470-484, 2001.
 Penuelas, J., I. Filella, et al. "Leaf mineral concentrations of Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis growing in the proximity of a natural CO2." Global Change Biology, vol.7, no.3 pp.291-301, 2001.
 Zerihun, A. and H. Bassirirad. "Interspecies variation in nitrogen uptake kinetic responses of temperate forest species to elevated CO2: potential causes and consequences." Global Change Biology, vol.7, no.2, pp.211-222, 2001.
 Loladze, I. "Rising atmospheric CO2 and human nutrition: toward globally imbalanced plant stoichiometry?" Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.17, no.10, pp.457-461, 2002.
 Gifford, R. M., D. J. Barrett, et al. "The effects of elevated CO2 on the C: N and C: P mass ratios of plant tissues." Plant and Soil, vol.224, no.1, pp.1-14, 2000.
 Taub, D. R. and X. Wang. "Why are nitrogen concentrations in plant tissues lower under elevated CO2? A critical examination of the hypotheses." Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, vol.50, no.11, pp.1365-1374, 2008.
 Hirschel, G., C. Korner, et al. "Will rising atmospheric CO2 affect leaf litter quality and in situ decomposition rates in native plant communities." Oecologia, vol.110, no.3, pp.387-392, 1997.
 Johnson, D. W., B. A. Hungate, et al. "The effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient distribution in a fire-adapted scrub oak forest." Ecological Applications, vol.13, no.5, pp.1388-1399, 2003.
 Anderson, L. J., H. Maherali, et al. "Gas exchange and photosynthetic acclimation over subambient to elevated CO2 in a C3–C4 grassland." Global Change Biology, vol.7, no.6, pp.693-707, Aug.2001.
 Penuelas, J., S. B. Idso, et al. "Effects of long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the mineral concentration of Citrus aurantium leaves." New Phytologist, vol.135, no.3, pp.439-444, Mar.1997.
 Finzi, A. C., E. H. DeLucia, et al. "Canopy N and P dynamics of a southeastern US pine forest under elevated CO2 " Biogeochemistry, vol.69, no.3, pp.363-378, 2004.
 Elser, J. J. "Ecological stoichiometry: from sea to lake to land." Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.15, no.10, pp.393-394, 2000.
 Cipollini, M. L., B. G. Drake, et al. "Effects of elevated CO2 on growth and carbon nutrient balance in the deciduous woody shrub Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume (Lauraceae)." Oecologia, vol.96, no.3, pp.339-346, Mar.1993.
 Del Pozo, A., P. Pérez, et al. "Gas exchange acclimation to elevated CO2 in upper-sunlit and lower-shaded canopy leaves in relation to nitrogen acquisition and partitioning in wheat grown in field chambers." Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.59, no.3, pp.371-380, 2007.
 Agrell, J., E. P. McDonald, et al. "Effects of CO2 and light on tree phytochemistry and insect performance." OIKOS, vol.88, no.2, pp.259-272, Feb.2000.
 Arnone, J. A. and G. Hirschel. "Does fertilizer application alter the effects of elevated CO2 on Carex leaf litter quality and in situ decomposition in an alpine grassland. " Acta Ecologica, vol.18, no.3, pp.201-206, 1997.
 Couteaux, M.-M., M. Mousseau, et al. "Increased atmospheric CO2 and litter Quality Decomposition of Sweet Chestnut Leaf Litter with Animal Food Webs of Different Complexities." OIKOS, vol.61, no.1, pp.54-64, May.1991.
 Milla, R., J. H. C. Cornelissen, et al. "Vascular plant responses to elevated CO2 in a temperate lowland Sphagnum peatland." Plant and Climate Change, vol.41, pp.13-26, Dec. 2004.
 Julkunen-Tiitto, R., J. Tahvanainen, et al. "Increased CO2 and nutrient status changes affect phytomass and the production of plant defensive secondary chemicals in Salix myrsinifolia (Salisb.)." Oecologia, vol.95, no.4, pp.495-498, May.1993.
 Riikonen, J., T. Holopainen, et al. "Leaf photosynthetic characteristics of silver birch during three years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 in the field." Tree Physiology, vol.25, pp.621-632, 2005.
 Kasurinen, A., J. Riikonen, et al. "Chemical composition and decomposition of silver birch leaf litter produced under elevated CO2 and O3." Plant and Soil, vol.282, no.1-2, pp.261-280, 2006.
 Sigurdsson, B. D., H. Thorgeirsson, et al. "Growth and dry-matter partitioning of young Populus trichocarpa in response to carbon dioxide concentration and mineral nutrient availability." Tree Physiology, vol.21, pp.941-950, 2000.
 Reich, P. B., I. J. Wright, et al. "Predicting leaf physiology from simple plant and climate attributes: a global GLOPNET analysis." Ecological Applications, vol.17, no.7, pp.1982-1988, 2007.
 Durán, J., A. Rodríguez, et al. "Changes in leaf nutrient traits in a wildfire chronosequence." Plant and Soil, vol.331, no.1-2, pp.69-77, 2010.
 Wang, W., J. Sardans, et al. "Responses of soil nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry to different human land uses in a subtropical tidal wetland." Geoderma, pp.459-470, Nov.2014.
 Dormann, C. and S. Woodin. "Climate change in the Arctic: using plant functional types in a meta‐analysis of field experiments." Functional Ecology, vol.16, no.1, pp.4-17, 2002.
 Wang, X.-G., X.-T. Lü, et al. "Responses of nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry of senesced leaves in dominant plants to nitrogen addition and prescribed burning in a temperate steppe." Ecological Engineering, vol.70, pp.154-161, 2014.
 Cunningham, S. A., B. Summerhayes, et al. "Evolutionary divergences in leaf structure and chemistry, comparing rainfall and soil nutrient gradients." Ecological monographs, vol.69, no.4, pp.569-588, 1999.
 Song, Z., H. Liu, et al. "Ecological stoichiometry of N: P: Si in China’s grasslands." Plant and Soil, vol.380, no.1-2, pp. 165-179. Mar.2014.