The Emergence of Smart Growth in Developed and Developing Countries and Its Possible Application in Kabul City, Afghanistan
The global trend indicates that more and more people live and will continue to live in urban areas. Today cities are expanding both in physical size and number due to the rapid population growth along with sprawl development, which caused the cities to expand beyond the growth boundary and exerting intense pressure on environmental resources specially farmlands to accommodate new housing and urban facilities. Also noticeable is the increase in urban decay along with the increase of slum dwellers present another challenge that most cities in developed and developing countries have to deal with. Today urban practitioners, researchers, planners, and decision-makers are seeking for alternative development and growth management policies to house the rising urban population and also cure the urban decay and slum issues turn to Smart Growth to achieve their goals. Many cities across the globe have adopted smart growth as an alternative growth management tool to deal with patterns and forms of development and to cure the rising urban and environmental problems. The method used in this study is a literature analysis method through reviewing various resources to highlight the potential benefits of Smart Growth in both developed and developing countries and analyze, to what extent it can be a strategic alternative for Afghanistan’s cities, especially the capital city. Hence a comparative analysis is carried on three countries, namely the USA, China, and India to identify the potential benefits of smart growth likely to serve as an achievable broad base for recommendations in different urban contexts.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316758Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 629
 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/352).
 Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MUDH), (2015), The State of Afghan cities: Volume one, Kabul, Afghanistan.
 City Mayors: World's fastest growing urban areas (1). (2018). Citymayors.com. Retrieved 2 December, 2017 from http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/urban_growth1.html.
 Ahmadi, A. S. & Kajita, Y. (2016), Evaluating urban land expansion using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Kabul, Afghanistan, Vol:10, No:9, 2016.
 Atlas of Urban Expansion - Kabul. (2018). Retrieved 10 January 2018, from http://www.atlasofurbanexpansion.org/cities/view/Kabul
 Safi, Z. U. (2011), Survey Report of Causes of Vehicles Traffic Problem in Kabul Afghanistan, Research Unit-Afghanistan Institute of Rural Development, MRRD.
 IRIN, (2008), Kabul's air pollution putting people's health at risk, viewed 21 December 2017, https://www.irinnews.org/fr/node/240808.
 Osman, M. (2015), PM2.5 Emission Sources, Health Effects and Possible Control Strategies in Kabul, the Capital of Afghanistan, Maseeh college of engineering & computer science, Portland, USA.
 The World Bank, (2008), Housing Finance in Afghanistan: Challenges and Opportunities, South Asia Region.
 conversiontools.org, (2012), Economic Benefits of Smart Growth and Costs of Sprawl, Pennsylvania Land Trust Association.
 Smart Growth Online, Smart Growth Principles, viewed on 2 January 2018, https://smartgrowth.org/smart-growth-principles/
 Robert W. Burchell, David Listokin, and Catherine C. (2000), Smart Growth: More Than a Ghost of Urban Policy Past, Less Than a Bold New Horizon, Housing Policy Debate • Volume 11, Issue 4.
 Freilich, R. (1999). From Sprawl to Smart Growth: Successful Legal, Planning, and Environmental Systems, Chicago, IL: American Bar Association, Section of State and Local Government Law.
 Indicators of Smart Growth in Maryland
 Smart Growth: A New American Approach to Regional Planning
 Song, Y. & Ding, C. (2009), Smart Urban Growth for China, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
 Kenworthy, J., and G. Hu. 2000. Threat to global survival? A case study of land use and transportation patterns in Chinese cities. http://www.istp.murdoch.edu.au/ISTP/casestudies/Case_Studies_Asia/china/chinese.html (accessed on September 5, 2008).
 Appleyard, B. et al., 2007. Smart Cities: Solutions for China's Rapid Urbanization, New York: NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council).
 Chen, X. 2008, ‘The Evaluation of the Implementation of Smart Growth in Chinese Official Plans: a case study of Xuzhou City, China', Master of Arts in Planning Thesis, Waterloo University, Waterloo, Canada.
 Dasgupta, A. (2018). CityLab, Sprawl Will Cost India $1.8 Trillion Per Year by 2050, Retrieved 15 January 2018, from https://www.citylab.com/solutions/2016/12/sprawl-will-cost-india-18-trillion-per-year-by-2050/509573/
 Census of India. (2011). "Registrar general and census commissioner." Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, India.
 Raparthi, K. (2014), Assessing Smart-Growth Strategies in Indian Cities: Grounded Theory Approach to Planning Practice, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, © ASCE, ISSN 0733-9488/05014031(10)/$25.00.
 NIBF, Affordable Housing, Retrieved 15 January 2018, from http://www.nibf.in/Blog/Articles?Id=17