Evaluation of Food Safety Management Systems of Food Service Establishments within the Greater Accra Region
Authors: Benjamin Osei-Tutu
Food contaminated with biological, chemical and physical hazards usually leads to foodborne illnesses which in turn increase the disease burden of developing and developed economies. Restaurants play a key role in the food service industry and violations in application of standardized food safety management systems in these establishments have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks. This study was undertaken to assess the level of compliance to the Code of practice that was developed and implemented after conducting needs assessment of the food safety management systems employed by the Food Service Establishments in Ghana. Data on pre-licence inspections were reviewed to assess the compliance of the Food Service Establishments. During the period under review (2012-2016), 74.52% of the food service facilities in the hospitality industry were in compliance with the FDA’s code of practice. Main violations observed during the study bordered on facility layout and fabrication (61.8%) and this is because these facilities may not have been built for use as a food service establishment. Another fact that came to the fore was that the redesigning of the facilities to bring them into compliance required capital intensive investments, which some establishments are not prepared for. Other challenges faced by the industry regarded issues on records and documentations, personnel facilities and hygiene, raw materials acquisition, storage and control, and cold storage.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316682Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 662
 Akhtar S: Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 2015, 55(2):219-226.
 Yeager VA, Menachemi N, Braden B, Taylor DM, Manzella B, Ouimet C: Relationship between food safety and critical violations on restaurant inspections: an empirical investigation of bacterial pathogen content. Journal of environmental health 2013, 75(6):68-73.
 Xirasagar S, Kanwat CP, Smith LU, Li YJ, Sros L, Shewchuk RM: Restaurant industry preparedness against intentional food contamination: results of a South Carolina survey. Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 2010, 16(4):E18-30.
 Onyeneho SN, Hedberg CW: An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. International journal of environmental research and public health 2013, 10(8):3296-3309.
 Motarjemi Y: Public Health Measures: Modern Approach to Food Safety Management: An Overview. In: Encyclopedia of Food Safety. edn. Waltham: Academic Press; 2014: 1-12.
 Wong MR, McKelvey W, Ito K, Schiff C, Jacobson JB, Kass D: Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City. American journal of public health 2015, 105(3):e81-87.
 Brown LG, Le B, Wong MR, Reimann D, Nicholas D, Faw B, Davis E, Selman CA: Restaurant manager and worker food safety certification and knowledge. Foodborne pathogens and disease 2014, 11(11):835-843.
 Smith AJ, McCarthy N, Saldana L, Ihekweazu C, McPhedran K, Adak GK, Iturriza-Gomara M, Bickler G, O'Moore E: A large foodborne outbreak of norovirus in diners at a restaurant in England between January and February 2009. Epidemiology and infection 2012, 140(9):1695-1701.
 Severi E, Booth L, Johnson S, Cleary P, Rimington M, Saunders D, Cockcroft P, Ihekweazu C: Large outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis PT8 in Portsmouth, UK, associated with a restaurant. Epidemiology and infection 2012, 140(10):1748-1756.
 Petran RL, White BW, Hedberg CW: Health department inspection criteria more likely to be associated with outbreak restaurants in Minnesota. Journal of food protection 2012, 75(11):2007-2015.
 Osei Tutu B, Annison S: A Retrospective Cohort Study on an Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Linked to a Buffet Lunch Served during a Conference in Accra. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering 2017, 11(7).
 Amuquandoh FE: International Tourists' Concerns About Traditional Foods in Ghana. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 2011, 18(1):1-9.
 FDA: Guidelines for licensing Food Service Establishments. In: Downloads. vol. 2014. FDA Website; 2011.
 Ababio PF, Lovatt P: A review on food safety and food hygiene studies in Ghana. Food Control 2015, 47(0):92-97.
 Annor GA, Baiden EA: Evaluation of food hygiene knowledge attitudes and practices of food handlers in food businesses in Accra, Ghana. Food and Nutrition sciences 2011, 2(08):830.
 Brown LG: EHS-net restaurant food safety studies: what have we learned? Journal of environmental health 2013, 75(7):44-45.
 Code of Hygienic Practice for Food Service Establishment in the Hospitality Industry https://fdaghana.gov.gh/images/stories/pdfs/downloads/food%20guidelines/CODE%20OF%20PRACTICE%20FOR%20FOOD%20SERVICE%20ESTA
 Lauritsen J, Bruus M, Myatt M: EpiData, a tool for validated data entry and documentation of data. Version 31 UK: County of Denmark and Brixton Health 2000.