Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30121
Methodology: A Review in Modelling and Predictability of Embankment in Soft Ground

Authors: Bhim Kumar Dahal

Abstract:

Transportation network development in the developing country is in rapid pace. The majority of the network belongs to railway and expressway which passes through diverse topography, landform and geological conditions despite the avoidance principle during route selection. Construction of such networks demand many low to high embankment which required improvement in the foundation soil. This paper is mainly focused on the various advanced ground improvement techniques used to improve the soft soil, modelling approach and its predictability for embankments construction. The ground improvement techniques can be broadly classified in to three groups i.e. densification group, drainage and consolidation group and reinforcement group which are discussed with some case studies.  Various methods were used in modelling of the embankments from simple 1-dimensional to complex 3-dimensional model using variety of constitutive models. However, the reliability of the predictions is not found systematically improved with the level of sophistication.  And sometimes the predictions are deviated more than 60% to the monitored value besides using same level of erudition. This deviation is found mainly due to the selection of constitutive model, assumptions made during different stages, deviation in the selection of model parameters and simplification during physical modelling of the ground condition. This deviation can be reduced by using optimization process, optimization tools and sensitivity analysis of the model parameters which will guide to select the appropriate model parameters.

Keywords: Embankment, ground improvement, modelling, model prediction.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316626

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 359

References:


[1] Hausmann MR (1990) Engineering Principles of Ground Modification. McGraw-Hill International Editions
[2] Topolnicki, M. (2004) In situ soil mixing. Ground Improvement. New York, Spon Press, 331‐428.
[3] Jie H, Gang Z, R. SV, Maosong H (2009) Advances in Ground Improvement: Research to Practice in the United States and China. In: Advances in Ground Improvement. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, p 0
[4] Zheng G, Jiang Y, Han J, Liu Y-F (2011) Performance of Cement-Fly Ash-Gravel Pile-Supported High-Speed Railway Embankments over Soft Marine Clay. Mar Georesources Geotechnol 29:145–161. doi: 10.1080/1064119X.2010.532700
[5] Wang C, Zhou S, Guo P, Wang B (2014) Experimental analysis on settlement controlling of geogrid-reinforced pile-supported embankments on collapsible loess in high-speed railway. Int J Pavement Eng 15:867–878. doi: 10.1080/10298436.2014.943130
[6] Chai JC, Shen JSL, Liu MD, Yuan DJ (2018) Predicting the performance of embankments on PVD-improved subsoils. Comput Geotech 93:222–231. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.05.018
[7] Shen SL, Chai JC, Hong ZS, Cai FX (2005) Analysis of field performance of embankments on soft clay deposit with and without PVD-improvement. Geotext Geomembranes 23:463–485. doi: 10.1016/j.geotexmem.2005.05.002
[8] Liu KW, Rowe RK (2015) Numerical modelling of prefabricated vertical drains and surcharge on reinforced floating column-supported embankment behaviour. Geotext Geomembranes 43:493–505. doi: 10.1016/j.geotexmem.2015.05.006
[9] Chai J, Igaya Y, Hino T, Carter J (2013) Finite element simulation of an embankment on soft clay - Case study. Comput Geotech 48:117–126. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.10.006
[10] Liu H, Cui Y, Shen Y, Ding X (2014) A new method of combination of electroosmosis, vacuum and surcharge preloading for soft ground improvement. China Ocean Eng 28:511–528. doi: 10.1007/s13344-014-0042-3
[11] Broms B (1986) Stabilizing of soft clay with lime and columns in Southeast Asia. Singapore
[12] Kamruzzaman AHM (2002) Physico-Chemical & Engineering Behaviour of Cement Treated Singapore Marine Clay. National University of Singapore
[13] Uddin K, Balasubramaniam AS, Bergado DT (1997) Engineering behavior of cement-treated Bangkok soft clay. Geotech Eng 28:
[14] Xiao HW (2009) Yielding and failure of cement treated soil. National Singapore University
[15] Dahal BK, Zheng JJ, Zhang RJ (2018) Experimental Investigation on Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Kathmandu Clay. Adv Mater Res. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1145.112
[16] Dahal BK, Zheng JJ (2018) Compression Behavior of Reconstituted Clay : A Study on Black Clay. 55:151–156
[17] Zhang C, Jiang G, Liu X, Buzzi O (2016) Arching in geogrid-reinforced pile-supported embankments over silty clay of medium compressibility: Field data and analytical solution. Comput Geotech 77:11–25. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2016.03.007
[18] Lai H-J, Zheng J-J, Zhang J, et al (2014) DEM analysis of “soil”-arching within geogrid-reinforced and unreinforced pile-supported embankments. Comput Geotech 61:13–23. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2014.04.007
[19] Liu KW, Rowe RK (2016) Performance of reinforced, DMM column-supported embankment considering reinforcement viscosity and subsoil’s decreasing hydraulic conductivity. Comput Geotech 71:147–158. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2015.09.006
[20] Esmaeili M, Khajehei H (2016) Mechanical behavior of embankments overlying on loose subgrade stabilized by deep mixed columns. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 8:651–659. doi: 10.1016/j.jrmge.2016.02.006
[21] Yi Y, Liu S, Du Y, et al (2012) The T-Shaped Deep Mixed Column Application in Soft Ground Improvement. In: Grouting and Deep Mixing 2012. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 389–399
[22] Chai J chun, Shrestha S, Hino T, Uchikoshi T (2017) Predicting bending failure of CDM columns under embankment loading. Comput Geotech 91:169–178. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.07.015
[23] Zhang Z, Han J, Ye G (2014) Numerical Analysis of Failure Modes of Deep Mixed Column-Supported Embankments on Soft Soils. In: Ground Improvement and Geosynthetics. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 78–87
[24] Jun F, Wu X, Zhang J (2014) Settlement Formula of Stabilized Layer in CFG Composite Foundation of High-Speed Railway. Electron J Geotech Eng 6867–6878
[25] Zheng J-J, Abusharar SW, Wang X-Z (2008) Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element modeling of composite foundation formed by CFG–lime piles. Comput Geotech 35:637–643. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2007.10.002
[26] Chen JS, Zhao WB (2007) Field test study on concrete-cored sand-gravel pile composite foundation. Chinese J Geotech Eng 29:957–962
[27] King DJ, Bouazza A, Gniel JR, et al (2017) Serviceability design for geosynthetic reinforced column supported embankments. Geotext Geomembranes 45:261–279. doi: 10.1016/j.geotexmem.2017.02.006
[28] Kerry Rowe R, Liu K, Taechakumthorn C (2015) Use of geosynthetics to aid construction over soft soils. Elsevier Ltd.
[29] Indraratna B, Nimbalkar S (2015) An Australian perspective on modernization of rail tracks using geosynthetics and shockmats. Elsevier Ltd.
[30] Bergado DT, Long P V., Murthy BRS (2002) A case study of geotextile-reinforced embankment on soft ground. Geotext Geomembranes 20:343–365. doi: 10.1016/S0266-1144(02)00032-8
[31] Fuggini C, Zangani D, Wosniok A, et al (2016) Innovative Approach in the Use of Geotextiles for Failures Prevention in Railway Embankments. Transp Res Procedia 14:1875–1883. doi: 10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.154
[32] Chan KF, Poon BM, Perera D (2018) Prediction of embankment performance using numerical analyses – Practitioner’s approach. Comput Geotech 93:163–177. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.07.012
[33] Yang C, Carter JP (2018) 1-D finite strain consolidation analysis based on isotach plasticity: Class A and Class C predictions of the Ballina embankment. Comput Geotech 93:42–60. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.05.004
[34] Indraratna B, Baral P, Rujikiatkamjorn C, Perera D (2018) Class A and C predictions for Ballina trial embankment with vertical drains using standard test data from industry and large diameter test specimens. Comput Geotech 93:232–246. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.06.013
[35] Jostad HP, Palmieri F, Andresen L, Boylan N (2018) Numerical prediction and back-calculation of time-dependent behaviour of Ballina test embankment. Comput Geotech 93:123–132. doi: 10.1016/J.COMPGEO.2017.05.026
[36] Buttling S, Cao R, Lau W, Naicker D (2018) Class A and Class C numerical predictions of the deformation of an embankment on soft ground. Comput Geotech 93:191–203. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.06.017
[37] Kelly RB, Sloan SW, Pineda JA, et al (2018) Outcomes of the Newcastle symposium for the prediction of embankment behaviour on soft soil. Comput Geotech 93:9–41. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.08.005
[38] Amavasai A, Sivasithamparam N, Dijkstra J, Karstunen M (2018) Consistent Class A & C predictions of the Ballina test embankment. Comput Geotech 93:75–86. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.05.025
[39] Gong Y, Chok YH (2018) Predicted and measured behaviour of a test embankment on Ballina clay. Comput Geotech 93:178–190. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.06.003
[40] Chan KF, Poon BM, Perera D (2018) Prediction of embankment performance using numerical analyses – Practitioner’s approach. Comput Geotech 93:163–177. doi: 10.1016/J.COMPGEO.2017.07.012
[41] Buttling S, Cao R, Lau W, Naicker D (2018) Class A and Class C numerical predictions of the deformation of an embankment on soft ground. Comput Geotech 93:191–203. doi: 10.1016/J.COMPGEO.2017.06.017