Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: from Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings
The piano sonatas of Beethoven represent part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The aims of this research were to further explore this intangibility by placing emphasis on defining emotional normative ratings for the “Waldstein” (Op. 53) and “Tempest” (Op. 31) Sonatas of Beethoven. To this end, a musicological analysis was conducted on these particular sonatas and referential patterns in these works of Beethoven were defined. Appropriate interactive questionnaires were designed in order to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts. Based on these ratings, it is possible for emotional annotations for these same referential patterns to be created and integrated into the music score.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316608Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 668
 A. J. Blood, and R. J. Zatorre, “Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion,” in Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2001, pp. 11818-11823.
 A. J. Blood, R. J. Zatorre, P. Bermudez, and A. C. Evans, “Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 2, pp. 382–387, Apr. 1999.
 M. M. Bradley, and P.J. Lang, “Measuring emotion: the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential,” Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, vol. 25, pp. 49-59, Mar. 1994.
 M. Brown, Explaining tonality. Schenkerian theory and beyond. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2005.
 D. Dellacherie, M. Roy, L. Hugueville, I. Peretz, and S. Samson, “The effect of musical experience on emotional self-reports and psycho-physiological responses to dissonance,” Psychophysiology, vol. 48, pp. 337–349, Mar. 2011.
 H. Helmholtz, Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen, als Physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn Verlag (4th Eds.), 1877.
 D. Huron, Sweet anticipation. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2006.
 P. N. Juslin, and S. Isaksson, “Subjective criteria for choice and aesthetic judgment of music: a comparison of psychology and music students,” Research Studies in Music Education, vol. 36, pp. 179–198, Jul. 2014.
 J. Kerman, and A. Tyson (with S. G. Burnham), Beethoven, Ludwig van. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London: Macmillan Publishers, vol. 29, (2nd Ed.), 2001.
 S. Koelsch, T. Fritz, and G. Schlaug, “Amygdala activity can be modulated by unexpected chord functions during music listening,” NeuroReport, vol. 19, pp. 1815–1819, Dec. 2008.
 J. H. McDermott, Auditory preferences and aesthetics: music, voices, and everyday sounds. In R. J. Sharot and T. Dolan (Eds.), Neuroscience of Preference and Choice: Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms, London: Academic Press, pp. 227–296, 2012.
 L. Meyer, Emotion and meaning in music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.
 A. D. Patel, “Language, music, syntax and the brain,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 6, pp. 674–681, Jun. 2003.
 H. Riemann, Musik-lexikon. (in German language). Leipzig, 1882.
 C. Rosen, Sonata forms. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., pp. 354, 1980.
 J. Russel, “A circumplex model of affect,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 39, pp. 1161-1178, 1980.
 H. Schenker, Free composition (Der Freie Satz): Vol. III of New musical theories and fantasies. Translated and edited by Oster Ernst. New York: Longman, Inc., in cooperation with the American Musicological Society, 1979.
 M. Spitzer, “The significance of recapitulation in the “Waldstein” Sonata,” Beethoven Forum 5, pp. 103-118, 1996.
 S. Thompson, “Determinants of listeners' enjoyment of a performance,” Psychology of Music, vol. 35, pp. 20–36, 2007.
 M. Zentner, D. Grandjean, and K. R. Scherer, “Emotions evoked by the sound of music: characterization, classification, and measurement,” Emotion, vol. 8, pp. 494–521, Aug. 2008.