Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32727
African Traditional Method of Social Control Mechanism: A Sociological Review of Native Charms in Farm Security in Ayetoro Community, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebisi A. Sunday, Babajide Adeokin


The persistent rise in farm theft in rural region of Nigeria is attributed to the lack of adequate and effective policing in the regions; thus, this brought about the inevitable introduction of native charms on farmlands as a means of fortification of harvests against theft in Ayetoro community. The use of charm by farmers as security on farmlands is a traditional crime control mechanism that is largely based on unwritten laws which greatly influenced the lives of people, and their attitudes toward the society. This research presents a qualitative sociological study on how native charms are deployed by farmers for protection against theft. The study investigated the various types of charms that are employed as security measures among farmers in Ayetoro community and the rationale behind the use of these mechanisms as farm security. The study utilized qualitative method to gather data in the research process. Under the qualitative method, in-depth interview method was adopted to generate a robust and detailed data from the respondents. Also the data generated were analysed qualitatively using thematic content analysis and simple description which was preceded by transcription of data from the recorder. It was revealed that amidst numerous charms known, two major charms are used on farmlands as a measure of social control in Ayetoro community, Ogun state South West Nigeria. Furthermore, the result of this study showed that, the desire for safekeeping of harvest from pilferers and the heavy punishments dispense on offenders by native charms are the reasons why farmers deploy charms on their farms. In addition, findings revealed that the adoption of these charms for protection has improved yields among farmers in the community because the safety of harvest has been made possible by virtue of the presence of various charms in the farm lands. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that such measures should be recognized in mainstream social control mechanisms in the fight against crime in Nigeria and the rest of the world. Lastly, native charms could be installed in all social and cooperate organisation and position of authority to prevent theft of valuables and things hold with utmost importance.

Keywords: Farm theft, native charms, mechanism, Ayetoro, pilferer.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1664


[1] Krishna, 1997. Smallholder Agriculture in Africa Constraints and Potential. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 432, Africa in Transition (Jul., 1977), pp. 12-25.
[2] CIA. (2013). The World Fact Book. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from
[3] Odekina, 2004. An assessment of effects of pilferage on arable crop farmers in Idah local government area of Kogi state, Nigeria. Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
[4] Ogen, 2007. The Agricultural Sector and Nigeria’s Development: Comparative Perspectives from the Brazilian Agro-Industrial Economy, 1960-1995, PP 184-197.
[5] L.A.O Laseinde. (1994). The Nigeria poultry attendant: Problems and solutions; Tropical Poultry Production Series. Delar Tertiary Publishers, Ile-Ife, p. 4.
[6] S.F Adedoyin. 1995. “Pilferage of Farms: A bane of food security in Nigeria.” Paper and Proceedings presented at the 1st National Seminar on Pilferage in Agriculture. At Ogun State University, Nigeria. November, 13-16, 1995 Pp. 5-6.
[7] UNICEF. 1998. The State of the World’s Children. United Nations Children’s Funds, New York: UNICEF.
[8] Anonguku I, C.P.O. Obinne and S. Daudu. 2008. A Socio-Economic Analysis of Livestock Pilferage in Rural and Urban Areas of Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Science 17(2): 169-172 (2008).
[9] I. Anonguku. (2005) Incidence of Livestock Pilferage in Benue State. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis in Extension. Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, 73 pp.
[10] Onyeozili C, Ebbe I. 2012. Social control in precolonial igboland of Nigeria. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies: AJCJS, Vol.6, #s1 &2. ISSN 1554-3897.
[11] M. O. Atolagbe. 2011. Security Consciousness in Indigenous Nigerian Houses: A Preliminary Survey of Yoruba Ethno-medical Devices. Ethno Med, 5(1): 57-62 (2011).
[12] T.P Olusanya. (1995). Causes, Method, Effects and Control of Pilfering in Livestock Enterprises in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Ogun State University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, 84pp.
[13] Okunola R. A., Ikuomola A. D. 2012. Festival of Curses: A Traditional Crime Control Method In Edo State –Nigeria. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology, n. s. Vol. 7. Is. 1 (2012).
[14] L. Joseph. 1987. Bulgarian magic charms: ritual, form, and content. The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Winter, 1987), pp. 548-562.
[15] John J. DiIulio, Jr. 2010. Deterrence theory. Retrieved from
[16] Punch news, September 25, 2016. Retrieved from stuck-shrine-trying-destroy-idols.
[17] Haralambos, M.; Holborn, M. 2008. Sociology: Themes and Perspectives (7th Edition).London: Harper Collins Publishers Limited.
[18] Gunther, J. (1955) Inside Africa. London: Hamish Hamilton.