A Green Method for Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV) with Aqueous Extract of Ficus carica Tree Leaves
A clean spectrophotometric method for the determination of hafnium by using a green reagent, acidic extract of Ficus carica tree leaves is developed. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacts with this reagent to form a yellow product. The formed product shows maximum absorbance at 421 nm with a molar absorptivity value of 0.28 × 104 l mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹, and the method was linear in the 2-11 µg ml⁻¹ concentration range. The detection limit value was found to be 0.312 µg ml⁻¹. Except zirconium and iron, the selectivity was good, and most of the ions did not show any significant spectral interference at concentrations up to several hundred times. The proposed method was green, simple, low cost, and selective.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316079Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 615
 A. F. Holleman, E. Wiberg and N. Wiberg, Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1056–1057, 1985.
 R. M. Wallace, R. A. Stoltz, and G. D. Wilk, Texas Instruments Inc, Zirconium and/or hafnium oxynitride gate dielectric. U.S. Patent 6,291,866, 2001.
 B. H. Lee, L. Kang, R. Nieh, W. J. Qi, and J. C. Lee, Thermal stability and electrical characteristics of ultrathin hafnium oxide gate dielectric reoxidized with rapid thermal annealing. Applied Physics Letters, 76(14), pp.1926-1928, 2000.
 E. P. Gusev, V. Narayanan, and M. M. Frank, Advanced high-κ dielectric stacks with polySi and metal gates: Recent progress and current challenges. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 50(4.5), pp.387-410, 2006.
 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 87th edition, CRC, 2006.
 J. D. Lee, Concise inorganic chemistry. Fifth Edition, Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 684, 1996.
 E. W. Spitz, J. R. Simmler, B. D. Field, K. H. Roberts, and S. M. Tuthill, Spectrographic Determination of Certain Rare Earths in Stainless Steels. Analytical Chemistry, 26(2), pp.304-307, 1954.
 Xiwen, H., Huarui, H. and Huiming, S., 1987. Selective Spectiophotometry for Determination of Hafnium in the Precence of Zirconium by the Difference in Solution State
[J]. Analytical Laboratory, 3, p.000.
 Clowers, C.C. and Guyon, J.C., 1969. Spectrophotometric determination of hafnium as reduced molybdosulfatohafnic acid. Analytical Chemistry, 41(8), pp.1140-1142.
 Clowers, C.C. and Guyon, J.C., 1969. Absorptiometric determination of hafnium with molybdophosphoric acid. Microchimica Acta, 57(5), pp.989-994.
 Kalyanaraman, S. and Fukasawa, T., 1983. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium and hafnium with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol. Analytical Chemistry, 55(14), pp.2239-2241.
 Subrahmanyam, B. and Eshwar, M.C., 1975. Rapid extractive spectrophotometric determination of hafnium (IV) with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol. Analytical Chemistry, 47(9), pp.1692-1693.
 Cheng, K.L., 1959. Analytical applications of xylenol orange—III: Spectrophotometric study on the hafnium-xylenol orange complex. Talanta, 3(1), pp.81-90.
 Agrawal, Y.K. and Dayal, U., 1984. Spectrophotometric determination of hafnium as a mixed-ligand complex with N-p-tolyl-p-methoxybenzohydroxamic acid and xylenol orange. Analyst, 109(12), pp.1565-1567.
 Z. Marczenko Spectrophotometric Determination of Elements. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 555, 609, 1976.
 S. B. Savvin, Arsenazo III. Atom Izdat, Moscow, 1966.
 Perkampus, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Its Applications. Springer-Verlag, Berlin pp. 33, 1992.
 K. L. Cheng, Determination of zirconium and hafnium with xylenol orange and methylthymol blue. Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 28, 41-53, 1963.
 B. Subrahmanyam, M. C. Eshwar, Spectrophotometric determination of hafnium(IV) with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol. Microchim. Acta, vol. 66, pp. 585-590, 1976.
 S. Kalyanaraman, and T. Fukasawa, Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium and hafnium with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. Anal. Chem., vol. 55, pp. 2239, 1983.
 H. H. Perkampus, UV-VIS Spectroscopy and its Applications. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
 Stover, M. Aradhya, L. Ferguson, and C. H. Crisosto, The fig: overview of an ancient fruit. HortScience, vol. 42, pp.1083, 2007
 RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
 A. Eisen, The Fig: Its History, Culture, and Curing: With a Descriptive Catalogue of the Known Varieties of Figs, US Government Printing Office, (No. 9), 1901.