Humic Acid and Azadirachtin Derivatives for the Management of Crop Pests
Organic cultivation of crops is gaining importance consumer awareness towards pesticide residue free foodstuffs is increasing globally. This is also because of high costs of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, making the conventional farming non-remunerative. In India, organic manures (such as vermicompost) are an important input in organic agriculture. Though vermicompost obtained through earthworm and microbe-mediated processes is known to comprise most of the crop nutrients, but they are in small amounts thus necessitating enrichment of nutrients so that crop nourishment is complete. Another characteristic of organic manures is that the pest infestations are kept under check due to induced resistance put up by the crop plants. In the present investigation, deoiled neem cake containing azadirachtin, copper ore tailings (COT), a source of micro-nutrients and microbial consortia were added for enrichment of vermicompost. Neem cake is a by-product obtained during the process of oil extraction from neem plant seeds. Three enriched vermicompost blends were prepared using vermicompost (at 70, 65 and 60%), deoiled neem cake (25, 30 and 35%), microbial consortia and COTwastes (5%). Enriched vermicompost was thoroughly mixed, moistened (25+5%), packed and incubated for 15 days at room temperature. In the crop response studies, the field trials on chili (Capsicum annum var. longum) and soybean, (Glycine max cv JS 335) were conducted during Kharif 2015 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Dharwad-Karnataka, India. The vermicompost blend enriched with neem cake (known to possess higher amounts of nutrients) and vermicompost were applied to the crops and at two dosages and at two intervals of crop cycle (at sowing and 30 days after sowing) as per the treatment plan along with 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). 10 plants selected randomly in each plot were studied for pest density and plant damage. At maturity, crops were harvested, and the yields were recorded as per the treatments, and the data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools and procedures. In the crops, chili and soybean, crop nourishment with neem enriched vermicompost reduced insect density and plant damage significantly compared to other treatments. These treatments registered as much yield (16.7 to 19.9 q/ha) as that realized in conventional chemical control (18.2 q/ha) in soybean, while 72 to 77 q/ha of green chili was harvested in the same treatments, being comparable to the chemical control (74 q/ha). The yield superiority of the treatments was of the order neem enriched vermicompost>conventional chemical control>neem cake>vermicompost>untreated control. The significant features of the result are that it reduces use of inorganic manures by 50% and synthetic chemical insecticides by 100%.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316031Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 396
 P. P. Ramaswamy, “Recycling of wastes as manures – potentials and prospects.” Paper presented in Summer School on Integrated Soil Productivity Management for Sustainable Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. pp. 83-91, 1998.
 C. Seenappa, C. B. JagannathaRao, and R. D. Kale, “Conversion of distillery waste into organic manure using earthworm Eudriluseugeniae. (Kinb)” III Intl. Conf. In Appropriate waste Mgmt. Technologies for Developing Countries, NEERI, Nagpur, Feb. 25-26, 1995, pp. 1165- 1170, 1995.
 R. D. Kale, K. Bano, and R. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Potential of Perionyxexcavatus for utilizing organic wastes”Pedobiologia, vol. 23, pp. 419-42, 1982.
 C. A. Edwards, "The use of earthworms in the breakdown and management of organic wastes”. In Earthworm Ecolosy (Ed. Edward, C.A), CRC press, Florida, pp. 327-354, 1998.
 R. S. Giraddi, R. D. Kale, N. B. Patil, and M. A. Waseem, “Earthworm population dynamics as influenced by crop eco-system and agril. Practices”. J. Exp. Zool. India, vol. 17(2), pp. 571-574, 2014.
 R. S. Giraddi, and T. S.Verghese, “Effect of different levels of neem cake and organic manures on sucking pests of chilli”,Pest Mgmt. Hort. Ecosystems, vol. 13, pp.108-114, 2007.
 N. Jinsa, R. S. Giraddi, and K. M. Mirajkar, “Biochemical basis of induced resistance against major pests of soybean nourished with organics, Biochem.Cell.Arch., vol. 12, pp. 295-301, 2012.
 K. P. Gundannavarand R. S. Giraddi, “Effect of Soil organic amendments on the activity of sucking pests of chilli”, Global J. Sci.Front Res. Agric. & Vet. Sci. vol. 13, pp. 13-16, 2013.
 N.Jinsa, R. S. Giraddi, and D. P. Biradar, “Biophysical basis of induced resistance as influenced by bio-rational nutrient management on lepidopteron pests of soybean”J. Eco-friendly Agric., vol. 9, pp. 48-52, 2014.
 B. V. Subbaiah and G. L. Asija, “A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils”, Current Science, vol. 25, pp. 259-260, 1956.
 Sparks, “Methods of soil analysis part III chemical methods”,Soil Science soc. America, USA, 1996.
 J. P.Martin, “Use of acid rose Bengal and Streptomycin in plate method for estimating soil fungi”,Soil Science, vol. 69, p. 215-232, 1950.
 E.Kuster. andS. T. Williams, “Solution for isolation of streptomycin”, Nature,vol. 202, pp. 926-929, 1964.
 G. A. Niles, “Breeding cotton for resistance to insect-pests”. In: Breeding plant resistance to insects. Eds. Macwell, F.G and Jennings, P.R., John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp.337-369, 1980.
 R. D. Kale, K. Vinayaka, K. Bano, and D. J. Bagyaraj, “Suitability of neem cake as an additive in earthworm feed and its influence on the establishment of micro flora”. J. Soil Bio. Ecol., vol. 6, pp. 98-103, 1986.
 V. Kumar, and K. P. Singh, “Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilising bacteria”.Biores.Technol., vol.76, pp. 173-175, 2001.
 M. A.Waseem, R. S. Giraddi, and Math K. K,“Assessment of nutrients and microflora in vermicompost enriched with various organics”,J. Exp. Zool. India, vol. 16, pp.697-703, 2013.
 Kaushik. P., Y.K. Dilbhagi and V. K. Garg, “Enrichment of vermicompost prepared from cow dung spiked solid textile mill sludge using nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilising bacteria”,Environ.Vol. 28, pp. 283-287, 2008.
 R. S. Giraddi, “Research priorities in vermitechnologies”, UASD- Final report, NABARD, Mumbai, pp.106, 2011.
 D. Madhuri, “Dissemination of vermitechnology to women”DST (GOI) Report, UAS, Dharwad, pp.45, 2011.
 R. H. Painter, “Insect resistance in crop plants. Tha MacMillan Co., Newyork. P.520, 1951.
 H. David and S. Eshwaramoorthy, “Physical resistance mechanisms in insect plant interactions. In Dyamics of insect plant Interactions: Recent Advances and Future Trends (Eds. T. N. Ananthakrishnan and A. Raman) Oxford & IBH. Pub.New Delhi; pp. 45-70, 1988.
 A. J.Peter, T. G. Shanower and J. Rameis, “The role of plant trichomes in resistance, a selective review, Phytophaga, vol.7, pp.41-63, 1995.
 Abhilash, C, R. H. Patil, R. S. Giraddi and P.V. Patil, “Influenc of organic amendments and biorationals on pod borer damage in soybean (Glycine max), Soybean Res. Vol.3, pp.76-80, 2005.
 S. Chakrobarti, “Neem based integrated schedule for the control of vectors causing apical leaf curling in chilli”, Pest management. Econ., vol. 8, pp. 79-84, 2001.