Strategic Entrepreneurship: Model Proposal for Post-Troika Sustainable Cultural Organizations
Authors: Maria Inês Pinho
Recent literature on issues of Cultural Management (also called Strategic Management for cultural organizations) systematically seeks for models that allow such equipment to adapt to the constant change that occurs in contemporary societies. In the last decade, the world, and in particular Europe has experienced a serious financial problem that has triggered defensive mechanisms, both in the direction of promoting the balance of public accounts and in the sense of the anonymous loss of the democratic and cultural values of each nation. If in the first case emerged the Troika that led to strong cuts in funding for Culture, deeply affecting those organizations; in the second case, the commonplace citizen is seen fighting for the non-closure of cultural equipment. Despite this, the cultural manager argues that there is no single formula capable of solving the need to adapt to change. In another way, it is up to this agent to know the existing scientific models and to adapt them in the best way to the reality of the institution he coordinates. These actions, as a rule, are concerned with the best performance vis-à-vis external audiences or with the financial sustainability of cultural organizations. They forget, therefore, that all this mechanics cannot function without its internal public, without its Human Resources. The employees of the cultural organization must then have an entrepreneurial posture - must be intrapreneurial. This paper intends to break this form of action and lead the cultural manager to understand that his role should be in the sense of creating value for society, through a good organizational performance. This is only possible with a posture of strategic entrepreneurship. In other words, with a link between: Cultural Management, Cultural Entrepreneurship and Cultural Intrapreneurship. In order to prove this assumption, the case study methodology was used with the symbol of the European Capital of Culture (Casa da Música) as well as qualitative and quantitative techniques. The qualitative techniques included the procedure of in-depth interviews to managers, founders and patrons and focus groups to public with and without experience in managing cultural facilities. The quantitative techniques involved the application of a questionnaire to middle management and employees of Casa da Música. After the triangulation of the data, it was proved that contemporary management of cultural organizations must implement among its practices, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship and its variables. Also, the topics which characterize the Cultural Intrapreneurship notion (job satisfaction, the quality in organizational performance, the leadership and the employee engagement and autonomy) emerged. The findings show then that to be sustainable, a cultural organization should meet the concerns of both external and internal forum. In other words, it should have an attitude of citizenship to the communities, visible on a social responsibility and a participatory management, only possible with the implementation of the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship and its variable of Cultural Intrapreneurship.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315985Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1025
 R.D, Ireland, M.A. Hitt, and D. Sirmon, “A Model of Strategic Entrepreneurship: The Construct and Its Dimensions”, Journal of Management, Vol.29, 963-989, December 2003.
 S. K. Rekha, S. Ramesh and S. J. Bharathi, “Empherical Study on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Mindset and the Factors Affecting Intrapreneurship: A Study In Indian Context”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship, Vol.19, 53-59, June 2015.
 J. J. M. Ferreira, C. I. Fernandes and V. Ratten, “A Co-Citation Bibliometric Analysis of Strategic Management Research”. Scientometrics, Vol. 109, 1-32, October 2017.
 P., Ebewo and M. Sirayi, “The Concept of Arts/Cultural Management: A Critical Reflection”. Journal of Arts Management Law and Society, Vol. 38, No. 4, 281-295, August 2010.
 J. Ruiz, F. Colbert and A. Hina, “Arts and Culture Management Academic Research, A Key Factor for Its Development: Heterogeneous Topics that Drive Knowledge of the Sector”. Arla, 30, No. 2, 147-155, March 2017.
 P. J. Dimaggio, “Cultural Entrepreneurship in Nineteenth Century Boston”. Media, Culture and Society, 4, 33–50, January 1982.
 G. Hagoort, Cultural Entrepreneurship, Freedom to Create Art and the Freedom of Enterprise, Inaugural Lecture, Summary Version: Utrecht: Utrecht School Of Arts, Research Group Art and Economics, 2007.
 Y. Aegesen, Cultural Entrepreneurs: Producing Cultural Value and Wealth. In H. Anheier & Y. R. Isar (2008). The Cultural Economy - The Cultures and Globalization Series, Los Angeles, Sage.
 H. Anheier, Y. R. Isar. The Cultural Economy - The Cultures and Globalization Series. Los Angeles: Sage, 2008.
 J. Gehman and J. F. Soublière, “Cultural Entrepreneurship: From Making Culture to Cultural Making”, Innovation: Organization & Management, Vol. 19, No. 1, 61-73, February 2017.
 R. Garud, J. Gehman and A. P. Giuliani, Contextualizing Entrepreneurial Innovation: A Narrative Perspective. Research Policy, 43, 1177–1188, September 2014.
 R. Garud, and J. Gehman Theory Evaluation, Entrepreneurial Processes, and Performativity. Academy of Management Review, 41, 544–549, July 2016.
 V. Raju, Creative Destruction or Destructive Creation? World Economic Forum. Retrieved from https://Www.Weforum.Org/Agenda/2016/05/Creative-Destruction-Or-Destructive-Creation/, 2016.
 J. A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper and Row, 1942.
 G. Pinchot, Intrapreneuring: Why Dont Have to Leave the Corporation to Become an Entrepreneur. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1995.
 D. V. R. Seshadri, and A. Tripathy Innovation through Intrapreneurship: The Road Less Travelled. The Journal for Decision Makers, Vol. 31, No 1, 17-29, January 2006.
 A. Shabana, Focusing on Intrapreneurship: An Employee-Centered Approach, Memon. Advances in Management, Vol. 3, No 12, 32-37, 2010.
 J. A. Felício, R. Rodrigues and V. R. Caldeirinha, “The Effect of Intrapreneurship on Corporate Performance”. Management Decision, Vol. 50, No 10, 1717 – 1738, 2012.
 M. L. Prado and E. Machado, “Intrapreneur: An Emerging Setting in Business”. IEEE Latin America Transactions, Vol. 10, No.1, 1195-1200, January 2012.
 E. B. Dantas, Empreendedorismo E Intra-Empreendedorismo. É Preciso Aprender A Voar Com Os Pés No Chão. Acedido Em Http://Ead1.Unifacs.Br:8090/Biblioteca/Biblioteca-Digital/Cmkt/Emprendendorismo/Empreendedorismo-E-Intra-Empreendedorismo-E-Preciso-Aprender-A-Voar-Com-Os-Pes-No-Chao, 2009.
 J. C. Carland and J. W. Carland, “Intrapreneurship: A Requisite for Success”. Entrepreneurial Executive, Vol. 12, 83-94, 2007.
 Y. Kim, “Stimulating Entrepreneurial Practices in the Public Sector: The Roles of Organizational Characteristics”. Administration & Society, Vol. 42, No 7, 780-814, August 2010.
 H. N. Nasution, F. T. Mavondo, M. J. Matanda and N. O. Nedubisi, “Entrepreneurship: Its Relationship with Market Orientation and Learning Orientation and as Antecedents to Innovation and Customer Value”. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 40, No 3, 336-345, 2011.
 J. M., Millán, J. Hessels, R. Thurik and R. Aguado. “Determinants of Job Satisfaction: A European Comparison of Self-Employed and Paid Employees”. Small Business Economic. Vol. 40, 27–39, January 2013.
 M. Zelnik, M. Maletič, D. Maletič, and B. Gomišček, “Quality Management Systems as a Link between Management and Employees”. Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No1, 45–62. January 2012.
 N. Turusbekova, M. Broekhuis, B. Emans, and E. Molleman, The Role of Individual Accountability in Promoting Quality Management Systems. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol.18, No.5, 471–482. In M. Zelnik, M. Maletič, D. Maletič, & B. Gomišček, Quality Management Systems As a Link between Management and Employees, Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No.1, 45–62, 2012.
 M. A., Balzarova, C. J. Bamber, S. Mccambridge and J.M. Sharp, “Key Success Factors in Implementation of Process-Based Management: A UK Housing Association Experience”. Business Process Management Journal, Vol 10, No.4, 387–399. In M. Zelnik, M. Maletič, D. Maletič, & B. Gomišček. “Quality Management Systems as a Link between Management and Employees”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No.1, 45–62, 2012.
 X. M. Bezuijen, K. Van Dam, P. T. Van Den Berg and H. Thierry, (2010). How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning: A Leader–Member Exchange Approach. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 83, No 3, 673–693, September 2010.
 G. T. Lumpkin and G. G. Dess, “Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance”, Academy of Management Review, 21, 135-172, January 1996.
 N. M. Ashkanasy, “International Happiness: A Multilevel Perspective”. Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol.25, No1, 23-29, February 2011.
 A. Pantouvakis, “Internal Marketing and the Moderating Role of Employees: An Exploratory Study”. Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No 2, 177–195, January 2012.
 V. Zeithaml and M. Bitner, Marketing De Serviços: A Empresa Com Foco No Cliente (2nd Ed.). In A. Pantouvakis, Internal Marketing and the Moderating Role of Employees: An Exploratory Study. Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No 2, February 2012.
 L. L. Berry and A. Parasuraman, Marketing Services. New York, NY: The Free Press. In A. Pantouvakis. Internal Marketing and the Moderating Role of Employees: An Exploratory Study, Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No 2, 177–195, February 2012.
 I.N. Lings, Internal Market Orientation: Constructs and Consequences. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 57, No 4, 405–413. In A. Pantouvakis, Internal Marketing and the Moderating Role of Employees: An Exploratory Study, Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No 2, February 2012.
 I. N., Lings and G. E. Greenley. The Development and Validation of a Measure of Internal Market Orientation (Working Paper Series). Birmingham, UK: Aston Business School. In A. Pantouvakis (2012), Internal Marketing and the Moderating Role of Employees: An Exploratory Study, Total Quality Management, Vol. 23, No 2, 177–195. February 2012.
 C. Fisher, M. M. Pearson, J. R. Goolsby and M. H. Onken, “Developing Measurements of Success for Performing Musical Groups”. Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 24, No 4-5, 325-333, 2010.
 A. Engelen, V. Gupta, L. Strenger, and M. Brettel, “Entrepreneurial Orientation, Firm Performance, and the Moderating Role of Transformational Leadership Behaviours”, Journal of Management, Vol 4, No 4, 1069-1097, 2015.
 Pinho, M. I. O Empreendedorismo Estratégico Como Fator De Melhoria De Desempenho De Organizações Culturais. Estudo De Caso - A Casa Da Música. Tese De Doutoramento, 2014.
 M. H. Morris, D.F. Kuratko and J.G. Covin, Corporate Entrepreneurship and Innovation (2nded.). Mason, Oh: South-Western/Thomson Publishers, 2008.
 H.-J. Chang and H.-B. Wang, “A Case Study on the Model of Strategic Entrepreneurship”, The International Journal of Organizational Innovation, Vol. 5, No 4, 30-44, April 2013.
 C. Tsai and H.-S. Lei, “The Importance and Satisfaction of Collaborative Innovation for Strategic Entrepreneurship”, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, Vol. 12, No.3, 569-582, 2016.
 J. A. Porfírio, T. Carrilho and L.S. Mónico,” Entrepreneurship in Different Contexts in Cultural and Creative Industries”, Journal of Business Research, 1-7, November 2016.
 S. Robinson and H.A. Stubberud, “Teaching Creativity, Team Work and Other Soft Skills for Entrepreneurship”, Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 17, No 2, 186-197, 2014.
 D. L. Bolton and M.D. Lane, “Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument”. Education and Training. Vol. 54, No 2/3, 219-233, 2012.
 J. P. Rascão, Strategic Management and Entrepreneurship: Friends or Enemies? Book of Proceedings – Tourism and Management Studies International Conference Algarve, Vol.4, 1238-1256, 2012.
 M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland and R. E. Hoskisson, “Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating Value for Individuals, Organizations, and Society”, Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 25, No 5, 57-75, May 2011.