**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**30067

##### Sustainability Impact Assessment of Construction Ecology to Engineering Systems and Climate Change

**Authors:**
Moustafa Osman Mohammed

**Abstract:**

Construction industry, as one of the main contributor in depletion of natural resources, influences climate change. This paper discusses incremental and evolutionary development of the proposed models for optimization of a life-cycle analysis to explicit strategy for evaluation systems. The main categories are virtually irresistible for introducing uncertainties, uptake composite structure model (CSM) as environmental management systems (EMSs) in a practice science of evaluation small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The model simplified complex systems to reflect nature systems’ input, output and outcomes mode influence “framework measures” and give a maximum likelihood estimation of how elements are simulated over the composite structure. The traditional knowledge of modeling is based on physical dynamic and static patterns regarding parameters influence environment. It unified methods to demonstrate how construction systems ecology interrelated from management prospective in procedure reflects the effect of the effects of engineering systems to ecology as ultimately unified technologies in extensive range beyond constructions impact so as, - energy systems. Sustainability broadens socioeconomic parameters to practice science that meets recovery performance, engineering reflects the generic control of protective systems. When the environmental model employed properly, management decision process in governments or corporations could address policy for accomplishment strategic plans precisely. The management and engineering limitation focuses on autocatalytic control as a close cellular system to naturally balance anthropogenic insertions or aggregation structure systems to pound equilibrium as steady stable conditions. Thereby, construction systems ecology incorporates engineering and management scheme, as a midpoint stage between biotic and abiotic components to predict constructions impact. The later outcomes’ theory of environmental obligation suggests either a procedures of method or technique that is achieved in sustainability impact of construction system ecology (SICSE), as a relative mitigation measure of deviation control, ultimately.

**Keywords:**
Sustainability,
constructions ecology,
composite structure model,
design structure matrix,
environmental impact assessment,
life cycle analysis,
climate change.

**Digital Object Identifier (DOI):**
doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315913

**References:**

[1] UE: Public Policy Initiatives to Promote the Uptake of Environmental Modeling Systems in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Final report of the best project expert group January 2004.

[2] Robert K H, “Tools and Concepts for Sustainable Development, how do they relate to A General Framework for Sustainable Development, and to each other”, Journel of Clearner Production, Vol. (8): pp. 12, 2001.

[3] Howard Thomas Odum, (1999), “Material Circulation, Energy Hierarchy, and Building Construction”, Paper for the 1999 Rinker Eminent Scholar Workshop on Construction Ecology and Metabolism. Center for Construction and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville. 1999

[4] Ellis E C, (2011), “Anthropogenic Transformation of the Terrestrial Biosphere”. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science, Vol. (369): pp.1010–1035, 2011.

[5] Steffen W, Grinevald J, Crutzen P, and McNeill J, (2011), “The Anthropocene: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. (369): pp. 842–867, 2011.

[6] Zalasiewicz J, Crutzen P J, and Steffen W, (2012), “The Anthropocene”, Pages 1033–1040 in F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, M. Schmitz, and G. Ogg, editors, “The Geologic Time Scale”, 2012. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK. 2012

[7] Smith B D and Zeder M A, (2013), “The Onset of the Anthropocene”, Anthropocene, Vol. (4): pp. 8–13, 2013.

[8] Anthony D. Barnosky, Elizabeth A. Hadly, Jordi Bascompte, Eric L. Berlow, James H. Brown, Mikael Fortelius, Wayne M. Getz, JohnHarte, Alan Hastings, Pablo A. Marquet, Neo D. Martinez, Arne Mooers, Peter Roopnarine, Geerat Vermeij, John W. Williams, Rosemary Gillespie, Justin Kitzes, Charles Marshall, Nicholas Matzke, David P. Mindell, Eloy Revilla and Adam B. Smith, (2012), “Approaching a State Shift in Earth’s Biosphere”, Nature, Vol. ( 486): pp. 52–58, 2012.

[9] Howard Thomas Odum, (1950), “The Biogeochemistry of Strontium: With Discussion on the Ecological Integration of Elements”, A Dissertation presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Yale University in Candidacy for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Said that: “It is postulated that there is a natural selection of the possible systems that’s entail mechanisms of maintaining stability. If this postulate is applied for recovery all of nature in equilibrium conditions, the resulting proposition is that nature is as a whole in a steady state or is in the most possible stable performance form and constitutes one big entity. This does not necessarily contradict evolutionary changes in the earth's history since these changes may be part of a larger steady state system”, Odum pp.6–8, 1950. Accessed in July 2017. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

[10] Schoener, Thomas W, (2011), “The Newest Synthesis: Understanding the Interplay of Evolutionary and Ecological Dynamics”, Science Vol (331) (6016): pp. (426–429), 2011.

[11] Jiang Z G, (1996), “Conservation Biology”, Zejiang Science and Technology. 132 – 142, 1996.

[12] Janzen, Daniel H, (1966), “Coevolution of Mutualism between Ants and Acacias in Central America”, Evolution Vol. 20(3): pp. 249–275, 1966

[13] Dawkins, Richard, (1982), “The Extended Phenotype”, New York: Freeman, 1982

[14] Dawkins, Richard, (2004), “Extended Phenotype – But not too Extended”, (A reply to Laland, Turner and Jablonka), Biology and Philosophy, Vol. 19(3): pp. 377–396, 2004

[15] Jones, Clive G, John H Lawton, and Moshe Shachak, (1994), “Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers”, Oikos Vol. 69(3), pp. 373–386, 1994.

[16] Jones, Clive G John H Lawton, and Moshe Shachak, (1997), “Positive and Negative Effects of Organisms as Physical Ecosystem Engineers”, Ecology, Vol. 78(7): pp.1946–1957, 1997.

[17] Jonathan W Moore, (2006), “Animal Ecosystem Engineers of Streams”, BioScience, Vol. 56(3): 237–246, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)056(0237:AEEIS]2.0.CO;2.

[18] Cole R J, Rousseau D, Theaker G T, (1993), “Building Environmental Performance Assessment Criteria (BEPAC)”, Vancouver: BEPAC Foundation; 1993.

[19] Berardi U, (2012), “Sustainability Assessment in the Construction Sector: Rating Systems and Rated Buildings”, Sustainable Development vol. 20(6):411–24, 2012.

[20] USGBC (United States Green Building Council) LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, (1999), “Green Building Rating System”, version 1.0. US Green Building Council; 1999.

[21] Trabucco D, Wood A, Popa N, Vassart O and Davies D, (2015), “Life Cycle Assessment of Tall Building Structural System”, Council on Tall Building and Urban Habitat: Chicago, 2015

[22] Cuddington, Kim, Will G Wilson, and Alan Hastings, (2009), “Ecosystem Engineers: Feedback and Population Dynamics”, American Naturalist, Vol. 173(4): pp. 488–498, 2009.

[23] Sarah K Berke, (2010), “Functional Groups of Ecosystem Engineers: A Proposed Classification with Comments on Current Issues”, Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol. 50(2): pp. 147–157, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/icq077

[24] Laland, Kevin N, Kim Sterelny, John F, Odling-Smee, William Hoppit, and Tobias Uller, (2011), “Cause and Effect in Biology Revisited: Is Mayr’s Proximate-Ultimate Dichotomy Still Useful?”, Science, Vol. 334 (6062): pp.1512–1516, 2011

[25] Goodland, R, and Sadler B, (1996), “The Analysis of Environmental Sustainability: From Concepts to Applications”, International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol (3): pp. (2-21), 1996.

[26] Howard Thomas Odum, et al. (1963), “Experiments with Engineering of Marine Ecosystems”, in: Publication of the Institute of Marine Science of the University of Texas, Vol. (9): pp. 374–403, 1963.

[27] Blunt M and Rubin B, “Implicit Flux Limiting Schemes for Petroleum Reservoir Simulation ”, 2nd European conference on mathematics of oil recovery, Arles, France, Dominique Guerillote, and Olivier Guillon (Editors) and Editions Technip, pp. (131-138), September 11–14, 27rue Ginoux, 75015 Paris, 1990. Available on:https://books.google.com.eg

[28] Rahim Aguejdad, Thomas Houet, and Laurence Hubert-Moy, “Spatial Validation of Land Use Change Models Using Multiple Assessment Techniques: A Case Study of Transition Potential Models”, Environ Model Assess DOI 10.1007/s10666-017-9564-4, Received: 17 December 2015 /Accepted: 1 June 2017 Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland, 2017.

[29] Wilson A G, “A Statistical Theory of Spatial Distribution Models”, Transport Res; Vol. 1(3): pp. (253–269), 1967.

[30] Hoyles C, Wolf A, MolyneuxHodgson S and Kent P. (2002), “Mathematical Skills in the Workplace”, London: The Science, Technology and Mathematics Council. 2002. Retrieved from http://eprints.ioe.ac.uk/1565/1/Hoyles2002MathematicalSkills.pdf

[31] Fotheringham A Stewart, Brunsdon Chris and Charlton Martin, (2002), “Geographically Weighted Regression: The Analysis of Spatially Varying Relationships”, (Reprint ed.), Chichester, England: John Wiley, 2002. ISBN: 978-0-471-49616-8

[32] Benjamin S Blanchard, and Walter J Fabrycky, (2010), “Systems Engineering and Analysis”, (5th ed.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall International Seiries in industrial and systems engineering, Pages 800, 2006. ISBN-13: 978-0132217354

[33] U S Green Building Council, (2013), “Materials and Resources Credit: Building Life Cycle Impact Reduction”, LEED Reference Guide for Building Design and Construction, http://www.usgbc.org,guide/dbc

[34] Jaap Bakker, Dan M. Frangopol, Klaas van Breugel, (2016) “Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE 2016)”, 16-19 October 2016, Delft, The Netherlands, 438 Pages, CRC Press, ISBN 9781138028470 - CAT# K26754, 2016

[35] Magdalena Svanström, Sara Heimersson, Gregory Peters, Robin Harder, David I'Ons, Anders Finnson and Jesper Olsson, (2017) “Life Cycle Assessment of Sludge Management with Phosphorus Utilisation and Improved Hygienisation in Sweden”, IWA Publishing Water Science and Technology (0273-1223), Vol. 75 (2017), 9: pp. 2013-2024. available Online, wst2017073; doi: 10.2166/wst.2017.073

[36] Dayong Wu, Changwei Yaun, Wesly Kumfer, and Hongchao Liu, “A Life-Cycle Optimization Model Using Semi-Markov Process for Highway Bridge Maintenance”, Applied Mathematical Modeling, Volume (43) March, pp. 45–60, 2017

[37] Macklin S, Lyon D, and Bisset R, (2002), “How to Embed Social Impact Assessment into Management Systemsthe Development of Shell’s Integrated Impact Assessment Guidelines”, Paper presented to the Annual Conference of the International Association of Impact Assessment, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2002.

[38] Andrea Titi and Fabio Biondini, (2012), “Validation of Diffusion Models for Life Cycle Assessment of Concrete Structures”, Third International Symposium on Life Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE 2012), Vienna, Austria, October 3-6 in: Life Cycle And Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems, Strauss A, Fragopol DM, Bergmeister (Eds.), CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor &Frances Group, London, UK, 2013.

[39] Barone G and Frangopol D M, (2014a), “Life Cycle Maintenance and Deterioration Structure by MulitObjective Optimization Involving Reliability, Risk, Availability, Hazard and Cost”, Structural Safety, Vol (48):pp. 4050, 2014.

[40] Schirmer P, Van Eggermond M and Axhausen K W, (2013), “Measuring Location in Residential Location Choice: An Empirical Study on the Canton of Zürich”, In: 13th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 2–5 July 2013. Berlin, Germany: Springer. 2013.

[41] Sadler B, (2002), “From Environmental Assessment to Sustainability Appraisal?” Environmental Assessment Yearbook 2002, Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment, Lincoln and EIA Centre, University of Manchester, pp. (145–152), 2002.

[42] Mitsch W.J. and Jorgensen S.E. (1989), "Introduction to Ecological Engineering" In: W.J. Mitsch and S.E. Jorgensen (Editors), Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to Ecotechnology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 3–12, 1989.

[43] Howard Thomas Odum, (1994), “Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology”, (Revised edition of Systems Ecology, 1983, Wiley, New York) University Press of Colorado, pp. 644, 1994.

[44] Noss R and Hoyles C, (2011), “Modeling to address Techno-Mathematical Literacies in Work”, In G. Kaiser, W. Blum, R. B. Ferri, & G. Stillman (Eds.), Trends in teaching and learning of mathematical modelling, New York, NY: Springer, (pp. 75–78), 2011.

[45] Noss, R, Bakker A, Hoyles C and Kent, P, (2007), “Situating graphs as workplace knowledge”, Educational Studies in Mathematics, Vol. 65(3): pp.367–384, 2007.

[46] Eva Jablonka and Uwe Gellert, (2007), “Mathematisation–Demathematisation: Social, philosophical and educational ramifications”, Rotterdam-Taipei: Sense Publishers, pp. 1-18, 2007. ISB: 90 8790 011 2.

[47] Felix Müller, Broder Breckling, Fred Jopp, and Hauke Reuter, (2011), “What Are the General Conditions under which Ecological Models can be Applied”, In Journal of Modeling Complex Ecological Dynamics, Springer, pp. 13–14, 2011. ISBN: 978–3–642–05028–2

[48] Odum Eugene Pleasants, (1969), “The Strategy of Ecosystem Development”, Science 164 (April 18): 262–270, 1969

[49] Odum, H.T., Odum, E.C, (2000), “Modeling for All Scales, an Introduction to System Simulation”, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp.458, 2000.

[50] Howard Thomas Odum, (1972a), “Use of Energy Diagrams for Environmental Impact Statements. In: Tools for Coastal Management”, Proceedings of the Conference February 14–15, 1972, Marine Technology Society, Washington DC, pp. 197–213, 1972

[51] Howard Thomas Odum, (1972b), “An Energy Circuit Language for Ecological and Social Systems: Its Physical Basis”, In: Patten, B. (Ed.), Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Academic Press, New York, Vol. (2): pp. 139–211, 1972.

[52] Howard Thomas Odum, (1983), “Systems Ecology: An Introduction”, Wiley, New York, pp. 644, 1983.

[53] Joshua Millspaugh and Frank Thompson (2008), “General Principles for Developing Landscape Models for Wildlife Conservation: Models for planning wildlife conservation in large landscapes”, Academic Press, Pages 720, 2008. ISBN: 9780123736314.

[54] Golushko S K, (2017), “Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Calculation of Composite Structures”, IOP Conference Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 894 (2017) 012021 doi :10.1088/1742-6596/894/1/012021, IOP publication Ltd available at internet site: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/894/1/012021/pdf

[55] Shukla J B, Hallam T G, and Capasso V, (1987), “Mathematical Modeling of Environmental and Ecological Systems”, Volume 11, Elsevier Science, 1st October 1987. ISBN: 9780444597687

[56] Sträßer, R, Damlamian, A and Rodrigues J F, (2012), “Educational Interface Between Mathematics And Industry (ICMI-ICIAM-Study 20)”, Pre proceedings of ICME12, The 12th International Congress on Mathematics Education, (pp. 7863–7874), July 8-15, Seoul, Korea, 2012

[57] Rodríguez E, Bosch M and Gascón, J, (2008), “A Networking Method to Compare Theories: Metacognition in Problem Solving Reformulated Within the Anthropological Theory of the Didactical”, ZDM, 40(2), 287–301, 2008.

[58] Eager E A, (2012), “Modeling and Mathematical Analysis of Plant Models in Ecology”, (2012). Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2012. available at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/mathstudent/34

[59] Winsløw C, (2011), “Anthropological Theory of Didactic Phenomena: Some Examples and Principles of Its Use in the Study of Mathematics Education”, In. Bosch M, Gascón J., Ruiz Olarría A., Artaud M., Bronner A, Chevallard Y, Cirade G, Ladage C and Larguier M, (Eds.), “Un panorama de TAD, CRM Documents 10”, Bellaterra (Barcelona): Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, pp. 117-138, 2011.

[60] SuroPrez V, and Journel A. G, (1990) “Stochastic Simulation of Lithofacies: An Improved Sequential Indicator Approach”, 2nd European conference on mathematics of oil recovery, September 11-14, Arles, France. Dominique Guerillote, and Olivier Guillon (Editors) and Editions Technip, pp. 3-10, 27rue Ginoux, 75015 Paris 1990. Available on https://books.google.com.eg

[61] Fotheringham A S, and Wong, D W S, (July 1, 1991). “The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in Multivariate Statistical Analysis”, Environment and Planning A, Vol. 23 (7): pp.1025–1044, 1991. doi:10.1068/a231025

[62] Oosterbaan R J, Sharma D P, Singh K N and Rao K V G K, (1990), “Crop Production and Soil Salinity: Evaluation of Field Data from India by Segmented Linear Regression”, In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Land Drainage for Salinity Control in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, February 25th to March 2nd, 1990, Cairo, Egypt, Vol. 3, Session V, pp. 373 – 383, 1990.

[63] Ritzema H P, Chapter 6 in: (ed., 1994), “Frequency and Regression Analysis: Drainage Principles and Applications”, Publ. 16, pp. 175–224, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. ISBN 90–70754–33–9, 1994

[64] Spandaw J, (2011), “Practical Knowledge of Research Mathematicians, Scientists and Engineers about the Teaching of Modelling”, In. Kaiser G, Blum W,. Borromeo Ferri, R and Stillman G, (Eds.), “Trends in teaching and learning of mathematical modelling” pp. 679–688). New York: Springer.

[65] Espedal M S, Ewing R E, and Russell T F, (1990), “Mixed Methods, Operator Splitting, and Local Refinement techniques for Simulation on Irregular Grids”, 2nd European conference on mathematics of oil recovery, September 11-14, Arles, France. Dominique Guerillote, and Olivier Guillon (Editors) and Editions Technip, pp. 37-345. 27rue Ginoux, 75015 Paris, 1990. Available on https://books.google.com.eg

[66] Philip N Klein, (2013), “Coding the Matrix: Linear Algebra through Computer Science Applications”, Newtonian Press, 2013 ISBN 061585673X, 9780615856735-530 pages, 2013.

[67] Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, (1832) “Theoria Combinationis Observationum Erroribus Minimis Obnoxiae”, (1821/1823).

[68] Johansen T, and Winther R, (1990), “Mathmatical and Numerical analysis of a Hyperbolic Systems Modeling Solvent Flooding”, 2nd European conference on mathematics of oil recovery, September 11-14 Arles, France. Dominique Guerillote, and Olivier Guillon (Editors) and Editions Technip, pp. 219-234. 27rue Ginoux, 75015 Paris, 1990. Available on https://books.google.com.eg

[69] Armstrong J Scott (2012), “Illusions in Regression Analysis”, International Journal of Forecasting (forthcoming). 28 (3): 689. doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2012.02.001, 2012

[70] Seibold D R, and McPhee R D, (1979), “Commonality Analysis: A Method for Decomposing Explained Variance in Multiple Regression Analyses”, Human Communication Research, Vol. (5): pp.355-365. 1979. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2958. Google Scholar CrossRef

[71] Robert Adrain, (1808), “Research Concerning The Probabilities of the errors which Happen in Making Observations”, The Analyst, or Mathematical Museum, Vol. (I), Article XIV, pp 93–109, Philadelphia: William P. Farrand and Co., 1808.

[72] Aldrich J, (1998), “Doing Least Squares: Perspectives from Gauss and Yule”, International Statistical Review, Vol. 66 (1): pp. 61–81, 1998. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.1998.tb00406.x, 1998.

[73] Tofallis C, (2009), “Least Squares Percentage Regression”, Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, Vol. (7): pp. 526–534, 2009. SSRN 1406472

[74] Lai T L, Herbert Robbins, and Wei C Z, (1978), “Strong Consistency of Least Squares Estimates in Multiple Regressions”, PNAS, Vol. 75 (7): pp. 3034–3036, 1978. https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-259X(79)90093-9

[75] Hermitte T, and Guerillot D, (1990), “Data Structure and Algorithms for Adaptive Mesh Refinement”, 2nd European conference on mathematics of oil recovery, September 11-14, Arles, France. Dominique Guerillote, and Olivier Guillon (Editors) and Editions Technip, pp. 271-280, 27rue Ginoux, 75015 Paris, 1990, Available on: https://books.google.com.eg.

[76] Howard Anton and Chris Rorres, (2010), “Elementary Linear Algebra”, (10th ed.), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Pages 792, 2005. ISBN-13: 978-0470559925.

[77] Richard L. Jr. Branham, (1990), “Scientific Data Analysis: An Introduction to Overdetermined Systems”, Springer, pages 237, 1990. ISBN-13: 978-1461279815

[78] Michel Loreau and Grigoris Kylafis, (2008), “Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Niche Construction for Its Agent”, Ecology Letters, Vol. 11(10): pp. (1072–1081), 2008. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01220.x

[79] Charles J Kibert,, Jan Sendzimir, and Bradley Guy G, (2003), “Construction Ecology: Nature as a Basis for Green Buildings”, Technology and Engineering, Construction, General, Routledge, 2003 ISBN: 1134508301, 9781134508303 - 336 pages.