Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32601
Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management

Authors: Özlem Küçükakça


The world population is rapidly growing. In the last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. Therefore, a wide literature and also the UK festivals database have been investigated. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.

Keywords: Ecological footprint, environmental sustainability, events, sustainability.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1113


[1] Statista. Music concert and festival attendance in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2012 and 2014 (in 1,000s). Retrieved on 20 March 2017 from
[2] Sziget. Retrived on 22 March 2017 from
[3] D. Getz. “Festivals, Special Events and Tourism,” New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
[4] J. Goldblatt, “Special Events: The art and Science of Celebration,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
[5] D. Getz, “Event studies: Theory, Research and Policy for Planned Events,” Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, London and New York, 2012.
[6] D. Getz, W. Frisby “Evaluating management effectiveness in community-run festivals,” Journal of Travel Research, 1988 pp. 27(1), 22-27.
[7] J. Goldblatt, “Special Events – Best Practices in Modern Event Management,” John Wiley and Sons, 1997.
[8] N. Douglas, R. Derett, “Special Interest Tourism,” John Wiley and Sons, 2001 p. 365.
[9] B. B. Esu, M. V. Arrey, “Tourists’ satisfaction with cultural tourism festival: a Case Study of Calabar Carnival Festival, Nigeria,” International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 4, no. 3, March 2009, pp. 116-125.
[10] D. Getz “The nature and scope of festival studies,” International Journal of Event Management Research, 2010, 5 (1), p. 1–47.
[11] J. Goldblatt, “Special Events: Twenty first century global event management,” John Wiley and Sons, 2002.
[12] D. Getz, “Event management and event tourism,” (1st ed.). New York: Cognizant Communications Corp., 1997.
[13] D. Getz, “Event management and event tourism,” (2nd ed.). New York: Cognizant Communications Corp., 2005.
[14] M. Jones, “Sustainable event management: A practical guide,” (2nd ed.) Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York, 2014.
[15] E. H. Wood. "Measuring the economic and social impacts of local authority events", International Journal of Public Sector Management, 2005, Vol. 18 Issue: 1, pp.37-53.
[16] L. C. Herrero, J. A. Sanz, M. Devesa. “Measuring the economic value and social viability of a cultural festival as a tourism prototype”. Tourism Economics, 2011, 14(5), 495-512.
[17] World Commission on Environment and Development, “Our Common Future,” Oxford University Press, 1987, p. 24.
[18] UN, “Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,” 2015.
[19] S. L. Hart. “Beyond Greening: Strategies for a sustainable world”. Harvard Business Review, 1997, 67-76.
[20] C. Hall. “The definition and analysis of hallmark tourist events”. Geojournal, 1989, 19(3), 263–268.
[21] J.R.B. Ritchie, D. Beliveau. “Hallmark events: An evaluation of a strategic response to seasonality in the travel market”. Journal of Travel Research, 14, 14-20.
[22] C. Hall. “Sustainable mega events: Beyond the myth of balanced approaches to mega event sustainability”. Event Management, Volume 16, Number 2, 2012, pp. 119-131(13).
[23] D. Gürsoy, K. Kim, M. Uysal. “Perceived impacts of festivals and special events by organizers: an extension and validation,” Tourism Management, Volume 25, Issue 2, April 2004, Pages 171–181.
[24] M. Yolal, D. Gürsoy, M. Uysal, H. L. Kim, S. Karacaoğlu. “Impact of festivals and events on residents’ well-being,” Annals of Tourism research 61 (2016) 1-18.
[25] C. R. Gibson, C. Wong. “Greening rural festivals: Ecology, sustainability and human-nature relations". In C.R. Gibson & J. Connell (Eds.), Festival places Revitalizing rural Australia, 2011 (pp. 92105). Bristol: Channel View Publications.
[26] J. Musgrave. “Moving towards responsible events management”. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes Vol. 3 No. 3, 2011 pp. 258-274 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
[27] UN, “World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision,” United Nations Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2015.
[28] Powerful Thinking, “The Show must go on environmental impact report and vision for the UK music industry, 2014.
[29] C. Dickson, C. Arcodia, “Promoting sustainable event practice: The role of professional associations,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2010, vol. 29, 236-244.
[30] M. Wackernagel, W. Rees, “Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth,” Gabriola Island, BC, and Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers, 1996.
[31] World Health Organization, “The World health report 2008 – primary health care (Now more than ever),” 2008.
[32] W. Biesiot, K. J. Noorman, “Energy requirements of household consumption: a case study of The Netherlands' Ecological Economics,” 1999, vol 28, no. 3, pp. 367 - 383.
[33] S. Gössling. “Global environmental consequences of tourism,” Global Environmental Change 12, 2002, pp. 283-302.
[34] C. Anderton, “Music festival sponsorship: between commerce and carnival,” Arts Marketing: An International Journal, 2009, vol. 1 Issue 2 pp. 145 – 158.
[35] N. A. Richardson. “The Adoption of Sustainable Marketing Practices within the UK Music Festivals Sector,” PhD Thesis, 2015. The University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment Sustainability Research Institute.
[36] Waste Regulations, “Environmental protection, England and Wales,” 2011.