Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32718
Application of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne javanica in Soil Amended with Oak Debris

Authors: Mohammad Abdollahi


Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most popular, widely grown and the second most important vegetable crop, after potatoes. Nematodes have been identified as one of the major pests affecting tomato production throughout the world. The most destructive nematodes are the genus Meloidogyne. Most widespread and devastating species of this genus are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. These species can cause complete crop loss under adverse growing conditions. There are several potential methods for management of the root knot nematodes. Although the chemicals are widely used against the phytonematodes, because of hazardous effects of these compounds on non-target organisms and on the environment, there is a need to develop other control strategies. Nowadays, non-chemical measures are widely used to control the plant parasitic nematodes. Biocontrol of phytonematodes is an important method among environment-friendly measures of nematode management. There are some soil-inhabiting fungi that have biocontrol potential on phytonematodes, which can be used in nematode management program. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, originally is an entomopathogenic bioagent. Biocontrol potential of this fungus on some phytonematodes has been reported earlier. Recently, use of organic soil amendments as well as the use of bioagents is under special attention in sustainable agriculture. This research aimed to reduce the pesticide use in control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. The effects of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and different levels of oak tree debris on M. javanica were determined. The combination effect of the fungus as well as the different rates of soil amendments was determined. Pots were filled with steam pasteurized soil mixture and the six leaf tomato seedlings were inoculated with 3000 second stage larvae of M. javanica/kg of soil. After eight weeks, plant growth parameters and nematode reproduction factors were compared. Based on the results of our experiment, combination of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and oak debris caused more than 90% reduction in reproduction factor of nematode, at the rates of 100 and 150 g/kg soil (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to control, the reduction in number of galls was 76%. It was 86% for nematode reproduction factor, showing the significance of combined effect of both tested agents. Our results showed that plant debris can increase the biological activity of the tested bioagent. It was also proved that there was no adverse effect of oak debris, which potentially has antimicrobial activity, on antagonistic power of applied bioagent.

Keywords: Biological control, nematode management, organic soil, Quercus branti, root knot nematode, soil amendment.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1160


[1] Kunwar, S., Paret, M. L., Olson, S. M., Ritchie, L., Rich, J. R., Freeman, J. and McAvoy, T. 2015. Grafting using rootstocks with resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato production. Plant Disease, 99(1): 119-124.
[2] Anastasiadis, I. A., Giannakou, I. O., Prophetou-Athanasiadou, D. A. and Gowen S. R. 2008. The combined effect of the application of a biocontrol agent Paecilomyces lilacinus, with various practices for the control of root-knot nematodes. Crop Protection, 27: 352-361.
[3] Mokhtari, S., Sahebani, N. and Etebarian, H. R. 2009. Study on biological control and systemic induction of peroxidase enzyme activity in tomato plant infected with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 antagonist. Journal of Agriculture, 11(1): 151-161.
[4] Tian, B., Yang, J. and Zhang, K. 2007. Bacteria used in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: populations, mechanisms of action, and future prospects. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 61: 197-213.
[5] Farashiani, M. E., Askary, H., Moniri, V. R., Omid, R., Azizkhani, E., Babmorad, M., Zamani, S. M., Hashemi, M. and Zeinali, S. 2011. Influence of super absorbent polymers on the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch). Sorokin against Aeolesthes sarta (Col.: Cerambycidae). Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 8(1): 27-38.
[6] Tribhuvaneshwar Sharma, M. K. and Bhargava, S. 2008. Efficacy of green muscardine fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae against reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis on tomato. Indian Journal of Nematology, 38: 242-244.
[7] Ghayedi, S. and Abdollahi, M. 2013. Biocontrol potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), isolated from suppressive soils of Boyer-Ahmad region, Iran, against J2s of Heterodera avenae. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 53 (2): 165-171.
[8] Jahanbazian, L., Abdollahi, M., and Hussienvand, M. 2014. Inhibitory effect of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne incognita, the causal agent of root knot of tomato, under laboratory condition. National Conference of Modern Topic in Agriculture. March 6, 2014, Tehran, Iran.
[9] Khosrawi, M., Abdollahi, M. and Sadravi, M. 2014. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma harzianum on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica. Biological Control of Pests and Plant Diseases, 3(1): 67-76.
[10] Jahanbazian, L., Abdollahi, M., and Rezaie, R. 2015. Combined effect of Metarhizium anisopliae and Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 on root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 51(3): 339-355.
[11] Akhtar, M. and Mahmood, I. 1993. Control of plant parasitic nematodes with Nimin and some plant oils by bare- root dip treatment. Nematologia Mediterranea, 21: 89-92.
[12] Oka, Y. and Yermiyahu, U. 2002. Suppressive effects of composts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Nematology, 4: 891-898.
[13] Perry, R. N. and Wesemael W. 2008. Host plant effects on hatching of root-knot nematodes. Russian Journal of Nematology, 16: 1-5.
[14] Elmi, N. and Abdollahi, M. 2015. Inhibitory effects of licorice residue and spent mushroom compost of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 51(1): 43-54.
[15] Ghazalbash, N. and Abdollahi, M. 2011. Antifungal effect of aqueous extract of Ferulago angulata (Schlecht.) Boiss. and Zataria multiflora Boiss on Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. lycopersici, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease in vitro. National Congress of Medicinal Plants. March 1-2, Sari, Iran.
[16] Abdollahi, M. and Ramezani, H. 2012. Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root pulp on management Meloidogyne javanica in some tomato cultivars. 2nd International Conference on Agrochemicals Protecting Crops, Health and Natural Environment - Role of Chemistry for Sustainable Agriculture. February 15-18, 2012. New Delhi, India. P. 220.
[17] Moradi, R., Moradi, F., Mirehki, K. and Abdollahi, M. 2015. Plant debris of oak forest as soil amendment, to improve the biocontrol activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma vierns against Meloidogyne javanica, in tomato. Journal of Crop Protection, 4 (3): 373-384.
[18] Hussey, R. S. and Barker, K. R. 1973. A comparison of methods of collecting inoculate of Meloidogyne spp., including a new technique. Plant Disease Reporter, 57: 1025-1028.
[19] Naserinasab F., Sahebani N. and Etebarian H. R. 2011. Biological control of Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum BI and salicylic acid on Tomato. African Journal of Food Science, 5(3): 276-280.
[20] Jacquet, M., Bongiovanni, M., Martinez, M., Verschave, P., Wajnberg, E. and Castagnone-Sereno, P. 2005. Variation in resistance to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato genotypes bearing the Mi gene. Plant Pathology, 54: 93– 99.
[21] Schroth, M. N. and Hancock, J. G. 1982. Disease-suppressive soil and root colonizing bacteria. Science, 216: 1376-1381.
[22] Hussey, R. S. 1985. Host-parasite relationship and associated physiological changes. Pp. 143-153. In: Advance treatise on Meloidogyne. Vol. 1. Biology and control. (J. N. Sasser and C. C. Carter, Eds.) Releigh, North Carolina State University.
[23] Wang, C. and St Leger, R. J. 2007. The MAD1 adhesion of Metarhizium anisopliae links adhesion with blastospore production and virulence to insects, and the MAD2 adhesion enables attachment to plants. Eukaryote Cell, 6: 808–816.
[24] Bakhit, M., Moradi, A. and Abdollahi, M. 2015. Biopriming effects of Trichoderma harzianum and Metarhizium anisopliae on germination and seedling growth of flaxseed. 4th National Congress on Medicinal Plants 12, 13 May 2015 Tehran, Iran.
[25] Kershaw, M. J., Moorhouse, E. R., Bateman, R., Reynolds, S. E. and Charnley, A. K. 1999. The Role of destruxins in the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae for three species of insect. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 74: 213-223.
[26] Mohanty, S. S., Raghavendra, K., Mittal, P. K. and Dash, A. P. 2008. Efficacy of culture filtrates of Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 35: 1199–1202.
[27] Jahanbazian, L., Abdollahi, M. and Haghnazari, E. 2014. Effect of culture filtrate of DEMI-001 isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. against Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (Col., Tenebrionidae). Third Insect Pest Management Conference. Jan. 21-22, 2014, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. p. 471.
[28] McSorley, R. and Gallaher, R. N. 1996. Effect of yard waste compost on nematode densities and maize yield. Journal of Nematology, 28: 655–660.
[29] McSorley, R. and Gallaher, R. N. 1995. Effect of yard waste compost on plant-parasitic nematode densities in vegetable crops. Supplement of Journal of Nematology, 27: 545-549.
[30] Siddiqui, M. A. and Alam, M. M. 2001. The IPM Practitioner. April p. 9–11.
[31] Abbasi, S., Dawar, S., Tariq, M. and Zaki J. 2009. Nematicidal activity of some spices against Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41(5): 2625-2632.
[32] Akhtar, M. 1998. Effect of two Compositae plant species and two types of fertilizer on nematodes in an alluvial soil, India. Applied Soil Ecology, 10: 21-25.
[33] Shaukat, S. S., Siddiqui, I. A. and Zarina, B. 2004. Effects of some common weeds from Pakistan on plant-parasitic nematodes In vitro and population densities and survival of Meloidogyne incognita in okra and brinjal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 32: 111-115.
[34] Sadeghian, I., Hassanshahian, M., Sadeghian, S. and Jamali, S. 2012. Antimicrobial Effects of Quercus Brantii Fruits on Bacterial Pathogens. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 5(3): 465-9.
[35] Owliaie, H. R., Adhami, E., Faraji, H. and Fayyaz, P. 2011. Influence of Oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) on selected soil properties of oak forests in Yasouj Region. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources Water and Soil Science, 56: 193-207.
[36] Dropkin, V. H., Marting, C. and Johnsorv, W. 1958. Effect of osmotic concentration on hatching of some plant parasitic nematodes. Nematologica, 3: 115-126.
[37] Nelson, E. B., Kuter, G. A. and Hoitink, H. A. J. 1983. Effect of fungal antagonists and compost age on suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off in container media amended with composted hard wood bark. Phytopathology, 73: 1457-1462.