Determination of Safety Distance Around Gas Pipelines Using Numerical Methods
Energy transmission pipelines are one of the most vital parts of each country which several strict laws have been conducted to enhance the safety of these lines and their vicinity. One of these laws is the safety distance around high pressure gas pipelines. Safety distance refers to the minimum distance from the pipeline where people and equipment do not confront with serious damages. In the present study, safety distance around high pressure gas transmission pipelines were determined by using numerical methods. For this purpose, gas leakages from cracked pipeline and created jet fires were simulated as continuous ignition, three dimensional, unsteady and turbulent cases. Numerical simulations were based on finite volume method and turbulence of flow was considered using k-ω SST model. Also, the combustion of natural gas and air mixture was applied using the eddy dissipation method. The results show that, due to the high pressure difference between pipeline and environment, flow chocks in the cracked area and velocity of the exhausted gas reaches to sound speed. Also, analysis of the incident radiation results shows that safety distances around 42 inches high pressure natural gas pipeline based on 5 and 15 kW/m2 criteria are 205 and 272 meters, respectively.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315761Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 626
 O. Adibi, A. Azadi, B. Farhanieh, and H. Afshin, “A parametric study on the effects of surface explosions on buried high pressure gas pipelines”, Engineering Solid Mechanics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 225-244, 2017.
 A. Golara, H. Bonyad, and H. Omidvar, “Forecasting Iran’s natural gas production, consumption”, Pipeline & Gas Journal, vol. 242, no. 8, pp. 24-30, 2015.
 A. Golara, A. Esmaeily, “Quantification and enhancement of the resilience of infrastructure networks”. Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-10.
 H. Wilkening, D. Baraldi, “CFD modeling of accidental hydrogen release from pipelines”, International journal of hydrogen energy, vol. 32, no.13, pp. 2206-2215, 2007.
 P. R. Oenbring, T. R. Sifferman, “Flare design-Are current methods too conservative”, Hydrocarbon Processing, vol.60, no. 5, pp. 124-129, 1980.
 M. J., Stephens, L. Keith, and K. M. Daron, “A model for sizing high consequence areas associated with natural gas pipelines”, In 4th International Pipeline Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2002.
 G. Fumarola, D. M. de Faveri, R. Pastorino, and G. Ferraiolo, “Determining safety zones for exposure to flare radiation”. In IChemE Symposium Serie, vol. 3, pp. 23-30, October 1983.
 J. S. Haklar, “Analysis of safe separation distances from natural gas transmission pipelines”, New Jersey Institute of Technology, PhD Thesis, 1997.
 “WHAZAN User Guide”, Technica international Ltd, March 1988.
 P. K. Raj, J. A. Morris, “Computerized spill hazard evaluation models”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.25, pp. 77-92, 1990.
 J. R. Bakke, D. Bjerketvedt, and M. Bjùrkhaug, “FLACS as a tool for safe design against accidental gas explosions,” In IChemE Symposium Series, no. 122, pp. 141-152, September 1990.
 J. Wendt, “Computational fluid dynamics: an introduction”, Springer Science & Business Media, 2008.
 B. E. Launder, D. Spalding, “The numerical computation of turbulent flows”, Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 269-289, 1974.
 O. Adibi, B. Farhanieh, and H. Afshin, “Numerical study of heat and mass transfer in underexpanded sonic free jet”, International Journal of Heat and Technology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 959-968, 2017.