Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Cognitive Dissonance: The Influence of Assertive Conflict Management Strategy and Team Psychological Safety
Today’s workers face more numerous and complex challenges and are required to be increasingly interdependent and faster learners. Knowledge sharing activities between people have been understood as a significant element affecting organizational innovation performance. While they do have the potential to spark cognitive conflict, disagreement is important from an organizational perspective because it can stimulate the development of new ideas and perhaps pave the way for creativity, innovation, and competitive advantage. How teams cope with the cognitive conflict dimension of knowledge sharing and the associated interpersonal risk is what captures our attention. Specifically, assertive conflict management strategies have a positive influence on knowledge sharing behaviors, and team psychological safety has a positive influence on knowledge sharing intention. This paper focuses on explaining the impact that these factors have on the shaping of an individual’s decision to engage or not in knowledge sharing activities. To accomplish this, we performed an empirical analysis on the results of our questionnaire about knowledge-sharing related conflict management and team psychological safety in pharmaceutical enterprises located in North America, Europe, and Asia. First, univariate analysis is used to characterize behavior regarding conflict management strategy into two groups. Group 1 presents assertive conflict management strategies and group 2 shows unassertive ones. Then, by using SEM methodology, we evaluated the relationships between them and the team psychological safety construct with the knowledge sharing process. The results of the SEM analysis show that assertive conflict management strategies affect the knowledge sharing process the most with a small, but significant effect from team psychological safety. The findings suggest that assertive conflict management strategies are just as important as knowledge sharing intentions for encouraging knowledge sharing behavior. This paper provides clear insights into how employees manage the sharing of their knowledge in the face of conflict and interpersonal risk and the relative importance of these factors in sustaining productive knowledge sharing activities.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315753Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 799
 Wang, S. & Noe, R. A., 2010. Knowledge Sharing: A review and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, Volume 20, pp. 115-131.
 Nonaka, I., 1994. A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), pp. 14-37.
 Gupta, A. K. & Govindarajan, V., 2000. Knowledge management's social dimension: Lessons from Nucor Steel. Sloan Management Review, 42(1), pp. 71-80.
 Tsoukas, H. & Vladimirou, E. F., 2001. What is organizational knowledge?. Journal of Management Studies, Volume 38, pp. 973-993.
 Cabrera, A. & Cabrera, E. F., 2005. Fostering knowledge sharing through people management practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 16, pp. 720-735.
 Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jimenez-Jimenez, D. & Sanz-Valle, R., 2011. Innovation or Immitation? The role of organizational culture. Management Decision, 49(1), pp. 55-72.
 Oho, O., 2012. Influence of Organizational Culture on Employee Work Behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Business Studies, 3(11), pp. 46-57.
 Butler, J. K., 1999. Trust expectations, information sharing, climate of trust, and negotiation effectiveness and efficiency. Group and Organization Management, 24(2), pp. 217-238.
 Wang, C. C., 2004. The influence of ethical and self-interest concerns on knowledge sharing intentions among managers: An empirical study. International Journal of Management, 21(3), pp. 370-381.
 Kankanhalli, A., Tan, B. C. & Wei, K.-K., 2005. Contributing knowledge to electronic repositories: An empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), pp. 113-143.
 Willem, A. & Scarbrough, H., 2006. Social capital and political bias in knowledge sharing: An exploratory study. Human Relations, 59(10), pp. 1343-1370.
 Schepers, P. & van den Berg, P. T., 2007. Social factors of work-environment creativity. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(3), pp. 407-428.
 Ribiere, V. M., 2009. A model for understanding the relationships between organizational trust, KM initiatives and successes. Waikoloa Village, 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
 Bordia, P., Bernd, I. & Abusah, D., 2006. Differences in sharing knowledge interpersonally and via databases: The role of evaluation apprehension and perceived benefits. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(3), pp. 262-280.
 Jehn, K., 1995. A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(2), pp. 256-282.
 Jehn, K. & Mannix, E., 2001. The Dynamic Nature of Conflict: A Longitudinal Study of Intragroup Conflict and Group Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), pp. 238-251.
 Edmondson, A. C., 2012. Teaming: How organizations learn, innovate and compete in the knowledge economy. San Franisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
 Edmondson, A. C., 2013. Teaming to Innovate. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
 Kwok, S. H. & Gao, S., 2005. Attitude towards knowledge sharing behavior. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 46(2), pp. 45-51.
 Lin, H., 2007. Effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on employee knowledge sharing intentions. Journal of Information Science, 33(2), pp. 135-149.
 Lin, H. F., 2007. Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: An empirical study. International Journal of Manpower, 28(3,4), pp. 315-332.
 Marks, M. A., Mathieu, J. E. & Zaccaro, S. J., 2001. A Temporally Based Framework and Taxonomy of Team Processes. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), pp. 356-376.
 Kuhn, T. & Poole, M., 2000. Do Conflict Management Styles Affect Group Decision Making?. Human Communication Research, 26(4), pp. 558-590.
 Katz, N. H. & Lawyer, J. W., 1993. Conflict Resolution: Building Bridges. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Corwin Press.
 Panteli, N. & Sockalingam, S., 2005. Trust and conflict within virtual inter-organizational alliances: a framework for facilitating knowledege sharing. Decision Support Systems, Volume 39, pp. 599-617.
 Vallerand, R., Deshaies, P., Cuerrier, J.-P., Pelletier, L.G., & Mongeau, C., 1992. Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action as Applied to Moral Behavior: A Confirmatory Analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(1), pp. 98-109.
 Bock, G. W., Kim, Y. G., Lee, J. N. & Zmud, R. W., 2005. Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), pp. 87-111.
 Argote, L., Gruenfeld, D. & Naquin, C., 2001. Group learning in organizations. In: Groups at Work: Theory and Research. New York, USA: Erlbaum, p. 552.
 Taylor, E. Z. & Wright, G. H., 2004. Organizational readiness for successful knowledge sharing: Challenges for public sector managers. Information Resources Management Journal, 17(2), pp. 22-37.
 Hsu, I. C., 2006. Enhancing employee tendencies to share knowledge - Case studies of nine companies in Taiwan. International Journal of Information Management, 26(4), pp. 326-338.
 Lee, J. H., Kim, Y. G. & Kim, M. Y., 2006. Effects of managerial drivers and climate maturity on knowledge-management performance: Empirical validation. Information Resources Management Journal, 19(3), pp. 48-60.
 Riege, A., 2005. Three dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(3), pp. 18-35.
 Edmondson, A. C., 1999. Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), pp. 350-383.
 Bock, G. W. & Kim, Y. G., 2002. Breaking the myths of rewards: An exploratory study of attitudes about knowledge sharing. Information Resources Management Journal, 15(2), pp. 14-21.
 Friedman, R., Tidd, S., Currall, S. & Tsai, J., 2000. What goes around comes around: The impact of personal conflict style on work conflict and stress. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 11(1), pp. 32-55.
 Ardichvili, A., Page, V. & Wentling, T., 2003. Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), pp. 64-77.
 Stasser, G. & Titus, W., 2003. Hidden Profiles: A Brief History. Psychological Inquiry, 14(3,4), pp. 304-313.
 Nicolas, R., 2004. Knowledge management impacts on decision making process. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(1), pp. 20-31.
 Lu, L., Yuan, Y. C. & McLeod, P. L., 2011. Twenty-Five Years of Hidden Profiles in Group Decision Making: A Meta-Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(1), pp. 54-75.
 Rahim, M. A., 2002. Toward a Theory of Managing Organizational Conflict. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 13(3), pp. 206-235.
 Choi, S. Y., Kang, Y. S., & Lee, H. (2008). The effects of socio-technical enablers on knowledge sharing: an exploratory examination. Journal of Information Science, 34(5), 742-754.
 Rahim, M. A. & Magner, M. R. (1995). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Styles of Handling Interpersonal Conflict: first-order factor model and its invariance across groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(1), 122-132.