Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector
Malaysian Public Sector departments or agencies are responsible to provide efficient public services with zero corruption. However, corruption continues to occur due to the absence of ethical leadership and well-execution of ethical guidelines. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore the attributes of ethical leadership and ethical guidelines. This study employs a qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of public sector using conceptual content analysis (NVivo11). The study reveals eight attributes of ethical leadership which are role model, attachment, ethical support, knowledgeable, discipline, leaders’ spirituality encouragement, virtue values and shared values. Meanwhile, five attributes (guidelines, communication, check and balance, concern on stakeholders and compliance) of ethical guidelines are identified. These identified attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of Malaysian Public Sector. This could enhance the public trust as well as the international community trust towards the public sector.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315669Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 955
 PSC (Public Sector Commission), Retrieved from https://publicsector.wa.gov.au/about-us/what-public-sector, July 2014.
 SSC (State Services Commission), Retrieved from http://www.ssc.govt.nz/what-is-the-public-sector, July 2014.
 A. Bergh, G. Fink and R. Ohrvall, Public Sector Size and Corruption: Evidence from 290 Swedish Municipalities. IFN Working Paper No 938, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, 2012.
 A. Sharma, “Private Sector also involved in corruption: Transparency report”, New Delhi, March 22, 2012.
 R. William, “Linear blames weak internal control”, Financial Daily, 2010.
 The Star On Line, ” Tabung Haji: Three firms want to buy 1MDB land”. Retrieved 3 June 2015 from http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/ 2015/05/10/Fund-We-have-ready-buyers/, May 10, 2015.
 The Straits Times, “Broad mandate' to probe Malaysia's 1MDB accounts: Auditor-General”. Retrieved 2 June 2015 from http://www.straitstimes.com/news/asia/south-east-asia/ story/broad-mandate-probe-1mdb- accounts-auditor-general-20150310, Mac 10, 2015.
 G. C. Tan, “Immigration officers and contractor nabbed over bribes totalling RM27mil. The Star Online Nation (Tuesday, 9 May 2017)”. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com.my/news/ nation/2017/05/09/ immigration-officers-and-contractor-nabbed-over-bribes-totalling-rm27mil/, 2017.
 Malay Mail OnLine, “Public procurement most vulnerable to corruption, ssyd Auditor-General”. Retrieved June 2017 from http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/public-procurement-most-vulnerable-to-corruption-says-auditor-general, 2017.
 S. Ram, “How Malaysian immigration officers ran a massive corruption scam (and got away scot-free)”. Retrieved May 2017 from http://says.com/my/news/the-massive-corruption-scam-spearheaded-by-malaysian-immigration-officers, 2016.
 B. Soltani, “The anatomy of corporate fraud: A comparative analysis of high profile American and European corporate scandals”, Journal of Business Ethics, 150: 251-274, 2014.
 L. R Dominguez, I. G Alvarez, I. M. G Sanchez,. “Corporate governance and codes of ethics”, Journal of Business Ethics, 90, 187-202, 2009.
 V. Lebbon, “Without Proper Regulation, is Corporate Social Responsibility Just a Public Relations Tool?”, Journal of Promotional Communications, 5(1), 23-30, 2017.
 H. McCraw, K. S Moffeit, K. S, & J. R. O. M Jr, “An analysis of the ethical codes of corporations and business school”, Journal of business Ethics, 87, 1-13, 2009.
 M. Kaptein, “Developing and testing a measure for the ethical culture of organizations: the corporate ethical virtues model”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29: 923-947, 2008.
 C. Philips, “Six characteristic of an ethical business”. Retrieved June 2017 from http://www.ethicalsystems.org/content/Leadership, 2017.
 B. Stevens, “Corporate Ethical Codes: Effective For Influencing Behaviour”, Journal of Business Ethics, 601-609, 2008.
 S. Singh, Combating Fraud in the Current Economic Downturn: Do Organisations Have Effective Measures in Place? Paper presented at the Asia Pacific International Conference On Forensic Accounting and Financial Criminology, 2009.
 M. Kaptein & S. Avelino, “Measuring corporate integrity: a survey-based approach”, Corporate Governance, 5(1), 45-54, 2005.
 M. E Brown & L. K Treviño, “Ethical leadership: A review and future directions”, The Leadership Quarterly 17, 595–616, 2006.
 L. K Trevino, “Developing and Changing Organizational Ethics: A Cultural Approach”, Research in Organizational Change and Development, 4, 195-230, 1990.
 C. Lu & C. Lin, 2014, “The effects of ethical leadership and ethical climate on employee ethical behavior in the international port context”, Journal of Business Ethics, 124: 129-223, 2014.
 L. F Thorton, 7 lenses : learning the principles and practices of ethical leadership, Richmond, VA : Leading in Context LLC, 2013.
 P. Fernandez, P. “How to be an ethical leader” Business News Daily Contributor. Retrieved June 2017 from http://www. businessnewsdaily.com/5537-how-to-be-ethical-leader.html, 2017.