Generative Syntaxes: Macro-Heterophony and the Form of ‘Synchrony’
One of the most powerful language innovation in the twentieth century music was the heterophony–hypostasis of the vertical syntax entered into the sphere of interest of many composers, such as George Enescu, Pierre Boulez, Mauricio Kagel, György Ligeti and others. The heterophonic syntax has a history of its growth, which means a succession of different concepts and writing techniques. The trajectory of settling this phenomenon does not necessarily take into account the chronology: there are highly complex primary stages and advanced stages of returning to the simple forms of writing. In folklore, the plurimelodic simultaneities are free or random and originate from the (unintentional) differences/‘deviations’ from the state of unison, through a variety of ornaments, melismas, imitations, elongations and abbreviations, all in a flexible rhythmic and non-periodic/immeasurable framework, proper to the parlando-rubato rhythmics. Within the general framework of the multivocal organization, the heterophonic syntax in elaborate (academic) version has imposed itself relatively late compared with polyphony and homophony. Of course, the explanation is simple, if we consider the causal relationship between the sound vocabulary elements – in this case, the modalism – and the typologies of vertical organization appropriate for it. Therefore, adding up the ‘classic’ pathway of the writing typologies (monody – polyphony – homophony), heterophony - applied equally to the structures of modal, serial or synthesis vocabulary – reclaims necessarily an own macrotemporal form, in the sense of the analogies enshrined by the evolution of the musical styles and languages: polyphony→fugue, homophony→sonata. Concerned about the prospect of edifying a new musical ontology, the composer Ştefan Niculescu experienced – along with the mathematical organization of heterophony according to his own original methods – the possibility of extrapolation of this phenomenon in macrostructural plan, reaching this way to the unique form of ‘synchrony’. Founded on coincidentia oppositorum principle (involving the ‘one-multiple’ binom), the sound architecture imagined by Ştefan Niculescu consists in one (temporal) model / algorithm of articulation of two sound states: 1. monovocality state (principle of identity) and 2. multivocality state (principle of difference). In this context, the heterophony becomes an (auto)generative mechanism, with macrotemporal amplitude, strategy that will be grown by the composer, practically throughout his creation (see the works: Ison I, Ison II, Unisonos I, Unisonos II, Duplum, Triplum, Psalmus, Héterophonies pour Montreux (Homages to Enescu and Bartók etc.). For the present demonstration, we selected one of the most edifying works of Ştefan Niculescu – Simphony II, Opus dacicum – where the form of (heterophony-)synchrony acquires monumental-symphonic features, representing an emblematic case for the complexity level achieved by this type of vertical syntax in the twentieth century music.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1315589Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 351
 Luminița Duțică, Concertul pentru orchestră în creaţia compozitorilor români: vol. I Tipologii Ansambluri, vol. II Repere stilistice – Modele ale genului (Concerto for Orchestra in Romanian composers creation: vol. I Typologies - Ensembles; vol. II Stylistic References - Models of the genre). București: Editura Muzicală, 2013.
 Dan Dediu, Fenomenologia actului componistic. Arhetip, arhetrop şi ornament în creaţia muzicală (The phenomenology of composition. Archetype, archetrope and ornament in music creations), Doctoral thesis. Bucureşti: Academia de Muzică, 1995.
 Gheorghe Duțică, Perpetuum Enescu. Paradigms of Polymodular Time. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală, 2016.
 Ștefan Niculescu, Reflecţii despre muzică (Reflections about music). Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală, 1980.
 Gheorghe Duțică, Universul gândirii polimodale (The Universe of Polymodal Thinking). Iași: Junimea, 2004.
 Ștefan Niculescu, Symphony no 2, Opus dacicum. București: Editura Muzicală, 1980.
 Gheorghe Duțică, Romanian Compositional Horizons. București: Editura Muzicală, 2016.