An Algorithm of Regulation of Glucose-Insulin Concentration in the Blood
The pancreas is an elongated organ that extends across the abdomen, below the stomach. In addition, it secretes certain enzymes that aid in food digestion. The pancreas also manufactures hormones responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. In the present paper, we propose a mathematical model to study the homeostasis of glucose and insulin in healthy human, and a simulation of this model, which depicts the physiological events after a meal, will be represented in ordinary humans. The aim of this paper is to design an algorithm which regulates the level of glucose in the blood. The algorithm applied the concept of expert system for performing an algorithm control in the form of an "active" used to prescribe the rate of insulin infusion. By decomposing the system into subsystems, we have developed parametric models of each subsystem by using a forcing function strategy. The results showed a performance of the control system.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1314640Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 586
 Chee, F., and Fernando, T., “Closed-loop control of blood glucose”, Springer, Berlin, 2007.
 Bergman, B. N., Ider, Y. Z., Bowden, C. R., and Cobelli, C., “Quantitive estimation of insulin sensitivity,” American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 236, pp. 667–677, Jun. 1979.
 Bergman, R. N., Philips, L. S., and Cobelli, C., “Physiologic evaluation of factors controlling glucose tolerance in man,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 68, pp. 1456–1467, Dec. 1981.
 Sorensen, J. T., “A physiologic model of glucose metabolism in man and its use to design and assess improved insulin therapies for diabetes,” PhD Thesis, Dept. of Chemical Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1985.
 Guyton, J. R., Foster, R. O., Soeldner, J. S., Tan, M. H., Kahn, C. B., Koncz, L., and Gleason, R. E., “A model of glu-cose-insulin homeostasis in man that incorporates the het-erogeneousfast pool theory of pancreatic insulin release,” Diabetes, Vol. 27, 1027, Oct. 1978.
 R. Hovorka, V. Canonico, L. J. Chassin, U. Haueter, M. Massi- Benedetti, M. O. Federici, T. R. Pieber, H. C. Schaller, L. Schaupp, T. Vering, and M. E. Wilinska, “Nonlinear model predictive control of glucose concentration in subjects with type 1 diabetes,” Physiol. Meas., vol. 25, pp. 905–920, 2004.
 R. Basu, B. D. Camillo, G. Toffolo, A. Basu, P. Shah, A. Vella, R. Rizza, and C. Cobelli, “Use of a novel triple tracer approach to asses postprandial glucose metabolism,” Amer. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., vol. 284, pp. E55–E69, 2003.
 K. V. Williams, A. Bertoldo, P. Kinahan, C. Cobelli, and D. E. Kelley, “Weight loss-induced plasticity of glucose transport and phosphorylation in the insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 52, pp. 1619–1626, 2003.
 Gaetano, Andrea, ARINO, Ovide. 2000. Mathematical modeling of the intravenous glucose tolerance test. Journal of mathematical Biology. 40: 136-168.
 P. Vicini, A. Caumo, and C. Cobelli, “Glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity from the minimal models: Consequence of under modeling assessed by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol.46, no. 2, pp. 130–137, Feb. 1999.
 C. Cobelli, G. Federspil, G. Pacini, A. Salvan, and C. Scandellari, “An integrated mathematical model of the dynamics of blood glucoseandits hormonal control,” Math.Biosci., vol. 58, pp. 27–60, 1982.
 C. Cobelli and A. Mari, “Validation of mathematical models of complexendocrine-metabolic systems: A case study on a model of glucose regulation,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., vol. 21, pp. 390–399, 1983.
 Athena Makroglou, Jiaxu Li, Yang Kuang, "Mathematical models and software tools for the glucose-insulin regulatory system and diabetes: an overview", Applied Numerical Mathematics 56 (2006) 559–573.
 Kyungreem Han, Hyuk Kangb, M. Y. Choic, Jinwoong Kim, Myung-Shik Lee, "Mathematical model of the glucose–insulin regulatory system: From the bursting electrical activity in pancreatic ß-cells to the glucose dynamics in the whole body", Physics Letters A 376 (2012) 3150–3157.
 R. Basu, C. D. Man, M. Campioni, A. Basu, G. Klee, G. Jenkins, G. Toffolo, C. Cobelli, and R. A. Rizza, “Mechanisms of postprandial hyperglycemia in elderly men and women: Gender specific differences in insulin secretion and action,” Diabetes, vol. 55, pp. 2001–2014, 2006.
 Palumbo, P.; Pepe, P.; Panunzi, S.; De Gaetano, A. Time-Delay Model-Based Control of the Glucose-Insulin System, by Means of a State Observer. European Journal of Control 2012, 6, 591-606.