Optimization and Validation for Determination of VOCs from Lime Fruit Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) with and without California Red Scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) Infested by Using HS-SPME-GC-FID/MS
An optimum technic has been developed for extracting volatile organic compounds which contribute to the aroma of lime fruit (Citrus aurantifolia). The volatile organic compounds of healthy and infested lime fruit with California red scale Aonidiella aurantii were characterized using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) coupled flame ionization detection (FID) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a very simple, efficient and nondestructive extraction method. A three-phase 50/30 μm PDV/DVB/CAR fibre was used for the extraction process. The optimal sealing and fibre exposure time for volatiles reaching equilibrium from whole lime fruit in the headspace of the chamber was 16 and 4 hours respectively. 5 min was selected as desorption time of the three-phase fibre. Herbivorous activity induces indirect plant defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by natural enemies for host location. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy lime fruit. The GC-MS analysis allowed the initial identification of 18 compounds, with similarities higher than 85%, in accordance with the NIST mass spectral library. One of these were increased by A. aurantii infestation, D-limonene, and three were decreased, Undecane, α-Farnesene and 7-epi-α-selinene. From an applied point of view, the application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help boost the efficiency of biocontrol programs and natural enemies’ production techniques.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132707Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 756
 Spina, Paolo, and Enrico Di Martino. Gli agrumi. Edagricole, 1991.
 Starrantino, A. "Quadro attuale e orientamenti varietali per la trasformazione." Proc Conf on Innovazioni nell’industria dei derivati agrumari. Vol. 5. 1994.
 Bosquez-Molina, E., et al. "Effect of edible coatings on storage life of Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) harvested in two different periods." XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Citrus and Other Subtropical and Tropical Fruit Crops: Issues, Advances and 632. 2002.
 Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations, Statistics Division. 2013. Production/Crops/World for lemons and limes, 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
 Hardy, Sandra. "Growing Lemons in Australia–a Production Manual." New South Wales, Australia: NSW Department of Primary Industries (2004).
 Quayle, Henry Josef. "Insects of citrus and other subtropical fruits. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publishing Company. (1938).
 Ebeling, Walter. "Subtropical fruit pests”. University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Berkeley, California. Revd. edn (1959).
 Sawyer, Richard C. To make a spotless orange: Biological control in California. Purdue University Press, 2002.
 Bedford, Edwin Charles Gerald, van den Berg, M.A. and de Villiers, E.A., (eds). Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa. 2nd edition. Nelspruit, South Africa: Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops.(1998).
 Allison, Jeremy D., and J. Daniel Hare. "Learned and naive natural enemy responses and the interpretation of volatile organic compounds as cues or signals." New Phytologist 184.4 (2009): 768-782.
 Vet, Louise EM, Felix L. Wäckers, and Marcel Dicke. "How to hunt for hiding hosts: the reliability-detectability problem in foraging parasitoids." Netherlands Journal of Zoology 41.2 (1990): 202-213.
 Mohammed, Khalid, Manjree Agarwal, James Newman, and Yonglin Ren. "Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction conditions for the identification of volatiles compounds from the whole fruit of lemon, lime, mandarin and orange." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines 5, no. 03 (2017): 176-186.
 Vas, György, and Karoly Vekey. "Solid‐phase microextraction: a powerful sample preparation tool prior to mass spectrometric analysis." Journal of mass spectrometry 39.3 (2004): 233-254.
 Perera, Ranjini MM, Philip J. Marriott, and Ian E. Galbally. "Headspace solid-phase microextraction—Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of wound induced plant volatile organic compound emissions." Analyst 127.12 (2002): 1601-1607.
 Prosen, Helena, and Lucija Zupančič-Kralj. "Solid-phase microextraction." TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 18.4 (1999): 272-282.
 Bicchi, Carlo, Stefania Drigo, and Patrizia Rubiolo. "Influence of fibre coating in headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatographic analysis of aromatic and medicinal plants." Journal of Chromatography A 892.1 (2000): 469-485.
 Wardencki, Waldemar, Magdalena Michulec, and Janusz Curyło. "A review of theoretical and practical aspects of solid‐phase microextraction in food analysis." International journal of food science & technology 39.7 (2004): 703-717.
 Nongonierma, Alice, et al. "Mechanisms of extraction of aroma compounds from foods, using adsorbents. Effect of various parameters." Food reviews international 22.1 (2006): 51-94.
 Opp, Susan B., and Robert F. Luck. "Effects of host size on selected fitness components of Aphytis melinus and A. lingnanensis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79, no. 4 (1986): 700-704.
 Garruti, Deborah S., Beatriz R. Cordenunsi, and Franco M. Lajolo. "Isolation of volatiles compounds in banana by HS-SPME: optimization for the whole fruit and pulp." International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics 3, no. 2 (2013): 110.
 Zhang, Cong, Meiling Qi, Qinglong Shao, Shan Zhou, and Ruonong Fu. "Analysis of the volatile compounds in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. using HS-SPME–GC-MS." Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 44, no. 2 (2007): 464-470.
 Nardini, Giuliana S., Josias O. Merib, Adriana N. Dias, Joyce NB Dutra, Cristine DS Silveira, Dilma Budziak, Edmar Martendal, and Eduardo Carasek. "Determination of volatile profile of citrus fruit by HS-SPME/GC-MS with oxidized NiTi fibers using two temperatures in the same extraction procedure." Microchemical Journal 109 (2013): 128-133.
 Qiu, Rui, Dong Qu, Giles E. St J. Hardy, Robert Trengove, Manjree Agarwal, and Yonglin Ren. "Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction conditions for the identification of phytophthora cinnamomi rands." Plant Disease 98, no. 8 (2014): 1088-1098.
 Magan, N., and P. Evans. "Volatiles as an indicator of fungal activity and differentiation between species, and the potential use of electronic nose technology for early detection of grain spoilage." Journal of Stored Products Research 36.4 (2000): 319-340.
 Robert, A. P., Magan, N., and P. Evans. "Volatiles as an indicator of fungal activity and differentiation between species, and the potential use of electronic nose technology for early detection of grain spoilage." Journal of Stored Products Research 36.4 (2000): 319-340. ". Chicago: Allured Publishing Corporation.
 Kondjoyan, Nathalie, and Jean-Louis Berdagué. A compilation of relative retention indices for the analysis of aromatic compounds. Ed. du Laboratoire Flaveur, 1996.
 Patt, J. M., and Mamoudou Setamou. "Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants." Environmental Entomology 39.2 (2010): 618-624.
 Alhmedi, Ammar, Eric Haubruge, and Frédéric Francis. "Identification of limonene as a potential kairomone of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)." European Journal of Entomology 107.4 (2010): 541.
 Song, Beizhou, et al. "Behavioral responses of Aphis citricola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemy Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to non-host plant volatiles." Florida Entomologist 100.2 (2017): 411-421.
 Giunti, Giulia, et al. "Innate and learned responses of the tephritid parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive volatiles induced by Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation." Journal of economic entomology 109.6 (2016): 2272-2280.