Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30855
Applying WILSERV in Measuring Visitor Satisfaction at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC)

Authors: A. H. Hendry, H. S. Mogindol


There is an increasing worldwide demand on the field of interaction with wildlife tourism. Studies pertaining to the service quality within the sphere of interaction with wildlife tourism are plentiful. However, studies on service quality in wildlife attractions, especially on semi-captured wildlife tourism are still limited. The Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) in Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia is one good example of a semi-captured wildlife attraction and a renowned attraction in Sabah. This study presents a gap analysis by measuring the perception and expectation of service quality at SORC through the use of a modified SERVQUAL, referred to as WILSERV. A survey questionnaire was devised and administered to 190 visitors who visited SORC. The study revealed that all the means of the six dimensions for perceived perceptions were lower than the expectations. The highest gap was from the dimension of reliability (-0.21), followed by tangible (-0.17), responsiveness (-0.11), assurance, (-0.11), empathy (-0.11) and wild-tangible (-0.05). Similarly, the study also showed that all six dimensions for perceived perceptions means were lower than the expectations for both local and foreign visitors.

Keywords: Wildlife Tourism, Service Quality, gap analysis, WILSERV

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 643


[1] Reynolds, Paul C., and Dick Braithwaite. "Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism." Tourism management 22.1 (2001): 31-42.
[2] ICCWC. “The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime. Information Note”, (online), available at: (25-03-2014). Impacts, management and planning (pp. 187–210). Altona, Victoria: Common Ground information technology usage: A theoretical model and longitudinal test. MIS Quarterly, 28(2) (2011): 229-254.
[3] Orangutan Appeal UK. Retrieved from, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, (n.d.)
[4] Sirakaya. E., Texas A & M University. Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences. “E-review of tourism research. College Station, TX,” Dept. of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A & M University, 2003
[5] Sabah Tourism Board. Retrieved from town+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk (2016).
[6] Newsome, David, Ross Kingston Dowling, and Susan A. Moore. Wildlife tourism. Vol. 24. Channel View Publications, 2005.
[7] Duffus, David A., and Philip Dearden. "Non-consumptive wildlife-oriented recreation: A conceptual framework." Biological Conservation 53.3 (1990): 213-231
[8] Paul C., and Dick Braithwaite. "Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism." Tourism management 22.1 (2001): 31-42.
[9] Akama, John S., and Damiannah Mukethe Kieti. "Measuring tourist satisfaction with Kenya's wildlife safari: a case study of Tsavo West National Park." Tourism management 24.1 (2003): 73-81.
[10] Ceballos-Lascurain, Hector. Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas: The state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development. Iucn, 1996.
[11] Beeton, Sue. "Rural tourism in Australia—has the gaze altered? Tracking rural images through film and tourism promotion." International journal of tourism research 6.3 (2004): 125-135.
[12] Wearing, S., and J. Neil. "Ecotourism: Impacts, Potentials and Possibilities. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd." (1999).
[13] Williams, C & Buswell, J, Service quality in leisure and tourism, CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. (2003).
[14] Mclaren, D. “Rethinking Tourism and Ecotravel”, West Hartford: Kumarian Press (1998)
[15] Gursoy, Dogan, Ken W. McCleary, and Lawrence R. Lepsito. "Propensity to complain: Effects of personality and behavioral factors." Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 31.3 (2007): 358-386.
[16] Porter, Lyman W. "A study of perceived need satisfactions in bottom and middle management jobs." Journal of applied Psychology 45.1 (1961): 1.
[17] Yüksel, Atila, and Mike Rimmington. "Customer-satisfaction measurement." The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 39.6 (1998): 60-70.
[18] Qu, Hailin, and Elsa Wong Yee Ping. "A service performance model of Hong Kong cruise travelers’ motivation factors and satisfaction." Tourism management 20.2 (1999): 237-244.
[19] Oliver, Richard L. "Theoretical bases of consumer satisfaction research: Review, critique, and future direction." Theoretical developments in marketing(1980): 206-210.
[20] Fornell, Claes. "A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience." the Journal of Marketing (1992): 6-21.
[21] Ajzen, Icek, and Martin Fishbein. "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour." (1980).
[22] Huh, Jin, Muzaffer Uysal, and Ken McCleary. "Cultural/heritage destinations: Tourist satisfaction and market segmentation." Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing 14.3 (2006): 81-99.
[23] Kozak, Metin, and Mike Rimmington. "Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an off-season holiday destination." Journal of travel research 38.3 (2000): 260-269.
[24] Kim, A. K., & Brown, G. (2012). Understanding the relationships between perceived travel experiences, overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty. An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 23 (3), 328-347.
[25] Lee, Joohyun, and Cheryl Beeler. "An investigation of predictors of satisfaction and future intention: links to motivation, involvement, and service quality in a local festival." Event Management 13.1 (2009): 17-29.
[26] Parasuraman, Anantharanthan, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. "A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research." the Journal of Marketing (1985): 41-50.
[27] Markovic, Suzana, and Sanja Raspor. "Measuring perceived service quality using SERVQUAL: a case study of the Croatian hotel industry." Management 5.3 (2010): 195-209.
[28] Marković, Suzana, and Sanja Raspor Janković. "Exploring the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in Croatian hotel industry." Tourism and Hospitality Management 19.2 (2013): 149-164.
[29] Patrício, Vera, Rogério P. Leal, and Zulema L. Pereira. "Applicability of SERVQUAL in restaurants: an exploratory study in a Portuguese resort." (2006).
[30] Han, Xiliang, and Laetitia Radder. "Measurement and consequences of US tourists' perceptions of service quality: a South African hunting safari case study." The International Business & Economics Research Journal 10.5 (2011): 33.
[31] Ryan, Chris, and Jan Saward. "The zoo as ecotourism attraction–visitor reactions, perceptions and management implications: The case of Hamilton Zoo, New Zealand." Journal of sustainable Tourism 12.3 (2004): 245-266.
[32] Yarrow, G. "Habitat requirements of wildlife: food, water, cover and space http://www. resources/wildlife/publications/pdfs/fs14_habitat_requirements.pdf." Visited on 15.09 (2009): 2014.
[33] Okello, Moses Makonjio, Danielle E. D'Amour, and Stephanie Grace Manka. "Tourism attractions and satisfaction of Amboseli National Park, Kenya." Tourism Analysis 13.4 (2008): 373-386.
[34] Vavra, Terry G. Improving your measurement of customer satisfaction: A guide to creating, conducting, analyzing, and reporting customer satisfaction measurement programs. ASQ quality press, 1997.
[35] Khan, Maryam. "ECOSERV: Ecotourists’ quality expectations." Annals of tourism research 30.1 (2003): 109-124